Koffler Scientific
Reserve at Jokers Hill

Research

The Koffler Scientific Reserve at Jokers Hill hosts research in ecology, evolution, genetics, environmental science and cognate areas of study. 


Why conduct research at KSR?

While some research projects seek solutions to specific challenges, the major thrust is addressing fundamental questions that in this age of environmental uncertainty, urgently need answers:

What limits the geographic ranges of species?

What makes a recently introduced species go invasive?

How do patterns of mating and reproduction contribute to population persistence?

When can natural selection act fast enough to buffer the effects of environmental change?

Who can conduct research at KSR?

Scientists from the University of Toronto and other institutions in Canada and abroad are using KSR resources to expand our knowledge base in biodiversity, ecology and evolution.  Principal Investigators are normally affiliated with an accredited university in Canada or abroad, or with a governmental ministry. Applications for use from private corporations and community organizations are also considered. 

Please consult with the KSR Director.

Hundreds of students have experienced their first taste of field biology in the fields, marshes and forests of KSR. KSR provides wonderful opportunities for field experiments in ecology and evolution, and for the training of students. Starting with Stephen Wright’s work on sex allocation in Trillium, we have investigated a range of problems in plant reproductive biology using diverse species and approaches. These have included the evolution of wind pollination in Carex (Jannice Friedman) and Thalictrum (David Timerman) and climate adaptation (Rob Colautti) and mating and inbreeding depression (Chris Balogh) in Lythrum.

Dr. Spencer Barrett, The University of Toronto, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

KSR is a beautiful property with all the resources needed to conduct high-quality field experiments in numerous types of study systems. Overall, my experiences doing field research and on departmental retreats at KSR have all been excellent.

Dr. Lucas Albano, PhD from the University of Toronto, Mississauga Campus

Field Research

KSR offers an immersive field study experience, with 350 hectares of diverse habitats suitable for a broad spectrum of biological studies.

Communities
Forest and wetland communities can accommodate observational and experimental studies that will not significantly alter community structure.
Studies
More manipulative studies can be conducted in oldfield communities.  
Ponds
Four artificial ponds are suitable for aquatic research.

Hear what our researchers have to say

Dr. Phoebe Edwards

I studied the vole, a population ecology model species, whose natural cycles in abundance have been an area of interest for ecologists for the past century. 

Dr. Rosemary Martin

The Zimmerman-Weis scholarship in field biology has been an important source of funding during my PhD and my time working at KSR. 

Laboratory Research

Our state-of-the-art laboratory facilities are equipped with cutting-edge technology to facilitate innovative research and discovery.

The Laboratory for Biodiversity and Global Change Biology 

This fully renovated facility supports field study (opened in 2010, full renovation completed in spring 2018).  Common use and “clean” bench space are available, as well as a lab for DNA extraction and amplification.  The coffee/lunch room seats 10.  Wireless Internet connection is available throughout the building.

The Common Use Lab

Equipment includes compound and stereomicroscopes, standard and convection drying ovens, refrigerators, freezers and low-temperature incubators.  Museum cabinets for storage of reference and voucher specimens of plants and insects are available.  Special freezers are reserved for long-term seed storage.  A mud room is reserved for cleaning and preparation of field materials.

The Molecular Lab

This lab is set up for extraction and amplification of DNA.  Equipment includes tissue grinders, Quiagen Cube, PCR machines, gel rigs, a -80 freezer, centrifuges and other basic equipment.

The Greenhouse:

A 300 m2 greenhouse, suitable for seasonal use is available for germination and preparation of materials for planting.

Publications

KSR researchers have contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge and understanding for decades. For our most up-to-date publications, please see our Google Scholar page.

View by Year

Kishore, B. S. P. C., A. Kumar, P. Saikia, N. Lele, P. Srivastava, S. Pulla, H. Suresh, B. K. Bhattarcharya, M. L. Khan, and R. Sukumar. 2024. Mapping of understorey invasive plant species clusters of Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing. Advances in Space Research 73:1379-1396.

Edwards, P. D., R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2023. Is chronic stress a causal mechanism for small mammal population cycles? Reconciling the evidence. Oecologia 201:609-623.

Henry, G. A., and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2023. G-matrix stability in clinally diverging populations of an annual weed. Evolution 77:49-62.

Henry, G. A., and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2023. Strong selection is poorly aligned with genetic variation in Ipomoea hederacea: implications for divergence and constraint. Evolution 77:1712-1719.

Wu, D., and J. Liebeherr. 2023. A Low-Cost Low-Power LoRa Mesh Network for Large-Scale Environmental Sensing. IEEE Internet of Things Journal.

Bertram, S. M., R. Dakin, S. J. Harrison, D. T. Tremblay, M. L. Reifer, and G. R. Kolluru. 2022. Acoustic signalling performance: variation in vigour at multiple scales. Animal Behaviour 184:157-171.

Luo, R., and B. Gilbert. 2022. Timing of short‐term drought structures plant–herbivore dynamics. Oikos 2022.

Lyu, X., X. Li, D. Dang, H. Dou, K. Wang, and A. Lou. 2022. Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) remote sensing in grassland ecosystem monitoring: A systematic review. Remote Sensing 14:1096.

McTavish, M., A. Rossi, R. Bourchier, and S. Smith. 2022. Quantifying seeds egested by field-collected earthworms: a dynamic and overlooked pool in forest soil seed banks. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 136:262-267.

O’Brien, A. M., T. F. Lins, Y. Yang, M. E. Frederickson, D. Sinton, and C. M. Rochman. 2022. Microplastics shift impacts of climate change on a plant-microbe mutualism: Temperature, CO2, and tire wear particles. Environmental research 203:111727.

So, C. P., M. M. Sibolibane, and A. E. Weis. 2022. An exploration into the conversion of dominance to additive genetic variance in contrasting environments. American Journal of Botany 109:1893-1905.

Song, C., M. Lu, J. R. Bennett, B. Gilbert, M.-J. Fortin, and A. Gonzalez. 2022. Reconceptualizing beta diversity: a hypervolume geometric approach. bioRxiv:2022.2011. 2027.518099.

Wu, Y., and R. I. Colautti. 2022. Evidence for continent-wide convergent evolution and stasis throughout 150 y of a biological invasion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119:e2107584119.

Xie, L., W. Xu, and X. Ding. 2022. Precursory motion and deformation mechanism of the 2018 Xe Pian-Xe Namnoy dam Collapse, Laos: Insights from satellite radar interferometry. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 109:102797.

Zhang, V. M., R. L. Martin, and R. L. Murray. 2022. Chronic Road Salt Exposure Across Life Stages and The Interactive Effects of Warming and Salinity in a Semiaquatic Insect. Environmental Entomology 51:313-321.

Benoit, A. D., and C. M. Caruso. 2021. A sit‐and‐wait predator, but not an active‐pursuit predator, alters pollinator‐mediated selection on floral traits. Ecology 102:e03506.

Boyle J. A., A. K. Simonsen, M. E. Frederickson, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2021. Priority effects alter interaction outcomes in a legume-rhizobium mutualism. Proceedings of the Royal Society. B, Biological sciences 288:20202753.

Dao, P. D., A. Axiotis, and Y. He. 2021. Characterizing the effect of small-scale topographic variability on co-existing native and invasive species in a heterogeneous grassland using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing. bioRxiv 2021.04.11.439344

Dao, P. D., A. Axiotis, and Y. He. 2021. Mapping native and invasive grassland species and characterizing topography-driven species dynamics using high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 104:102542

Dao, P. D., Y. He, and C. Proctor. 2021. Plant drought impact detection using ultra-high spatial resolution hyperspectral images and machine learning. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 102:102364.

Edwards, P. D., C. Frenette‐Ling, R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2021. A mechanism for population self‐regulation: Social density suppresses GnRH expression and reduces reproductivity in voles. Journal of Animal Ecology 90:784-795.

Edwards, P. D., S. G. Lavergne, L. K. McCaw, S. Wijenayake, R. Boonstra, P. O. McGowan, and M. M. Holmes. 2021. Maternal effects in mammals: broadening our understanding of offspring programming. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 62:100924.

Etzler E. A., and D. T. Gwynne. 2021. Sex differences in survival: viability selection in nymphal tree crickets from a conopid fly parasitoid. Ecological Entomology 46:451-458.

Forsyth L. Z., and B. Gilbert. 2021. Parallel responses of species diversity and functional diversity to changes in patch size are driven by distinct processes. Journal of Ecology 109:793-805.

Leite, L. M., S. K. French, C. A. Searcy, and S. J. McCauley. 2021. Forest edges and their effects on the arrival of dragonflies at north-temperate experimental ponds. International Journal of Odonatology 24:38-50.

Lu, B., and Y. He. 2021. Assessing the Impacts of Species Composition on the Accuracy of Mapping Chlorophyll Content in Heterogeneous Ecosystems. Remote Sensing 13:4671.

Lu B., C. Proctor, and Y. He. 2021. Investigating different versions of PROSPECT and PROSAIL for estimating spectral and biophysical properties of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation in mixed grasslands. GIScience & Remote Sensing :1-18.

Martin, R. L., and S. J. McCauley. 2021. Risks for overwintering eggs of the dragonfly Sympetrum vicinum in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Hydrobiologia 848:4933-4944.

McGoey, B. V., and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2021. Introduced populations of ragweed show as much evolutionary potential as native populations. Evolutionary Applications 14:1436-1449.

Proctor C., P. D. Dao, and Y. He. 2021. Close-range, heavy-duty hyperspectral imaging for tracking drought impacts using the PROCOSINE model. Journal of quantitative spectroscopy & radiative transfer 263:107528.

Punzalan D., J. T. Fang, W. Chen, and L. Rowe. 2021. Divergence in life history and behaviour between hybridizing Phymata ambush bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Schultz, B., and J. Koprivnikar. 2021. The contributions of a trematode parasite infectious stage to carbon cycling in a model freshwater system. Parasitology Research 120:1743-1754.

Xing D., and F. He. 2021. Analytical models for β‐diversity and the power‐law scaling of β‐deviation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 12:405-414.

Arcila Hernández L. M., S. R. Davis, and A. A. Agrawal. 2020. Host specificity and variation in oviposition behaviour of milkweed stem weevils and implications for species divergence. Ecological Entomology 45:1121-1133.

Baines C. B., S. Diab, and S. J. McCauley. 2020. Parasitism Risk and Infection Alter Host Dispersal. The American Naturalist 196:119-131.

Batstone R. T., M. A. E. Peters, A. K. Simonsen, J. R. Stinchcombe, and M. E. Frederickson. 2020. Environmental variation impacts trait expression and selection in the legume–rhizobium symbiosis. American Journal of Botany 107:195-208.

Boyle J., and D. Start. 2020. Plasticity and habitat choice match colour to function in an ambush bug. Functional Ecology 34:822-829.

Brown K. S., and B. Gilbert. 2020. Population‐ and community‐level rarity have opposing effects on pollinator visitation and seed set. Journal of Ecology 108:1835-1844.

de Bruijn F. J. 2020. The Model Legume Medicago truncatula, 2 Volume Set – Google Books.

deJonge R. B., I. M. Jones, R. S. Bourchier, and S. M. Smith. 2020. Interpreting host-test results for classical biological control candidates: Can the study of native congeners improve the process? Biological Control 145:104237.

Dolezal A. J. 2020. Height differences in clonal stands of Tussilago farfara promote outcrossing by influencing pollinator behaviour. bioRxiv, .

Etzler E. A., and D. T. Gwynne. 2020. Sex differences in survival: viability selection in nymphal tree crickets from a conopid fly parasitoid. Ecological Entomology .

Etzler E. A., W. D. Brown, L. F. Bussière, and D. T. Gwynne. 2020. Oecanthus nigricornis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) as the first known host of Stylogaster neglecta (Diptera: Conopidae). Canadian Entomologist 152:613-621.

Fréchette E., C. Y. Y. Chang, and I. Ensminger. 2020. Variation in the phenology of photosynthesis among eastern white pine provenances in response to warming. Global Change Biology 26:5217-5234.

Huang M., X. Liu, M. W. Cadotte, and S. Zhou. 2020. Functional and phylogenetic diversity explain different components of diversity effects on biomass production. Oikos 129:1185-1195.

Malloch B., S. Tatsumi, S. Seibold, M. W. Cadotte, |. J. S. Macivor, and J. S. Macivor. 2020. Urbanization and plant invasion alter the structure of litter microarthropod communities. J Anim Ecol 89:2496-2507.

Masonick P., and C. Weirauch. 2020. APPENDIX: Taxonomic revision of the Nearctic erosa species group of Phymata Latreille, 1802 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Phymatinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 41:AP1-AP27.

McGoey B. V., K. A. Hodgins, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2020. Parallel flowering time clines in native and introduced ragweed populations are likely due to adaptation. Ecology and Evolution 10:4595-4608.

McKee K. M., J. Koprivnikar, P. T. J. Johnson, and M. T. Arts. 2020. Parasite infectious stages provide essential fatty acids and lipid-rich resources to freshwater consumers. Oecologia 192:477-488.

Meadley-Dunphy S. A., K. M. Prior, and M. E. Frederickson. 2020. Invasive ants disperse seeds farther than native ants, affecting the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment and survival. Oecologia 192:119-132.

Murray R. L., S. Tah, J. Koprivnikar, L. Rowe, and S. J. McCauley. 2020. Exposure to potentially cannibalistic conspecifics induces an increased immune response. Ecological Entomology 45:355-363.

O’Brien A. M., T. F. Lins, Y. Yang, M. E. Frederickson, D. Sinton, and C. M. Rochman. 2020. A common contaminant shifts impacts of climate change on a plant-microbe mutualism: effects of temperature, CO2 and leachate from tire wear particles. bioRxiv, .

O’Brien A. M., Z. H. Yu, D. Luo, J. Laurich, E. Passeport, and M. E. Frederickson. 2020. Resilience to multiple stressors in an aquatic plant and its microbiome. American Journal of Botany 107:273-285.

Prior K. M., S. A. Meadley‐Dunphy, and M. E. Frederickson. 2020. Interactions between seed‐dispersing ant species affect plant community composition in field mesocosms. Journal of Animal Ecology 89:2485-2495.

So C. P. 2020. The Adaptive Potential of Lifetime Fitness Increases under a Future Climate Change Scenario in a Population of Brassica rapa.

Start D. 2020a. Ecological rigidity and the hardness of selection in the wild. Evolution 74:859-870.

Start D. 2020b. Phenotypic plasticity and community composition interactively shape trophic interactions. Oikos 129:1163-1173.

Start D. 2020c. Abundance and traits link predator ontogeny to prey communities. Ecology 101:e03044.

Start D., and S. McCauley. 2020. Gender underlies the formation of STEM research groups. Ecology and Evolution 10:3834-3843.

Start D., A. E. Weis, and B. Gilbert. 2020. Ecological and Evolutionary Stochasticity Shape Natural Selection. The American naturalist 195:705-716.

Start D., M. A. Barbour, and C. Bonner. 2020. Urbanization reshapes a food web. Journal of Animal Ecology 89:808-816.

Teterina A. A., J. H. Willis, and P. C. Phillips. 2020. Chromosome-Level Assembly of the Caenorhabditis remanei Genome Reveals Conserved Patterns of Nematode Genome Organization. Genetics 214:769-780.

Timerman D., and S. C.   Barrett. 2020. Influence of local density and sex ratio on pollination in an ambophilous flowering plant. American Journal of Botany 107:587-598.

Zukowski N., D. Kirk, K. Wadhawan, D. Shea, D. Start, and M. Krkošek. 2020. Predators can influence the host‐parasite dynamics of their prey via nonconsumptive effects. Ecology and Evolution 10:6714-6722.

Archer H., and P. C. Phillips. 2019. Experimental evolution of independent genetic pathways for resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity within the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. bioRxiv :484998.

Baines C. B., I. M. C. Ferzoco, and S. J. McCauley. 2019. Phenotype‐by‐environment interactions influence dispersal. Journal of Animal Ecology 88:1263-1274.

Bonner C., N. A. Sokolov, S. E. Westover, M. Ho, and A. E. Weis. 2019. Estimating the impact of divergent mating phenology between residents and migrants on the potential for gene flow. Ecology and Evolution 9:3770-3783.

Borges I. L., L. Z. Forsyth, D. Start, and B. Gilbert. 2019. Abiotic heterogeneity underlies trait-based competition and assembly. Journal of Ecology 107:747-756.

Dao P. D., Y. He, and B. Lu. 2019. Maximizing the quantitative utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery for studying plant physiology: An optimal sensor exposure setting procedure and empirical line method for atmospheric correction. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 77:140-150.

De Luca P. A., S. Buchmann, C. Galen, A. C. Mason, and M. Vallejo‐Marín. 2019. Does body size predict the buzz‐pollination frequencies used by bees? Ecology and evolution 9:4875-4887.

Edwards P. D., E. K. Dean, R. Palme, and R. Boonstra. 2019. Assessing space use in meadow voles: the relationship to reproduction and the stress axis. J Mammal 100:4-12.

Ferzoco I. M. C., C. B. Baines, and S. J. McCauley. 2019. Co-occurring Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae) species differ in their behavioral response to cues of Belostoma (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) predation risk. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 112:402-408.

Franks S. J., M. R. Sekor, S. Davey, and A. E. Weis. 2019. Artificial seed aging reveals the invisible fraction: Implications for evolution experiments using the resurrection approach. Evolutionary Ecology 33:811-824.

French S. K., and S. J. McCauley. 2019. The movement responses of three libellulid dragonfly species to open and closed landscape cover. Insect Conservation and Diversity 12:437-447.

Gordon S. C. C., S. A. Meadley‐Dunphy, K. M. Prior, and M. E. Frederickson. 2019. Asynchrony between ant seed dispersal activity and fruit dehiscence of myrmecochorous plants. American Journal of Botany 106:71-80.

Hernandez D., K. N. Kiesewetter, S. Palakurty, J. R. Stinchcombe, and M. E. Afkhami. 2019. Synergism and symbioses: unpacking complex mutualistic species interactions using transcriptomic approaches. The Model Legume Medicago truncatula :1045-1054.

Johnson S. A., M. M. Tompkins, H. Tompkins, and S. R. Colla. 2019. Artificial Domicile Use by Bumble Bees (Bombus; Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Ontario, Canada. J Insect Sci 19.

Kirk D., D. Shea, and D. Start. 2019. Host traits and competitive ability jointly structure disease dynamics and community assembly. Journal of Animal Ecology 88:1379-1391.

Leebens-Mack J. H., M. S. Barker, E. J. Carpenter, M. K. Deyholos, M. A. Gitzendanner, S. W. Graham, I. Grosse, Z. Li, M. Melkonian, and S. Mirarab. 2019. One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants.

Lu B., and Y. He. 2019. Evaluating empirical regression, machine learning, and radiative transfer modelling for estimating vegetation chlorophyll content using bi-seasonal hyperspectral images. Remote Sensing 11:1979.

Mangahas R. S., R. L. Murray, and S. J. McCauley. 2019. Chronic exposure to high concentrations of road salt decreases the immune response of dragonfly larvae. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7:376.

Mangum S. M. 2019. Measuring Flowering Phenology and its Consequences: A Systematic Review.

McGoey B. V., K. A. Hodgins, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2019. Parallel clines in native and introduced ragweed populations are likely due to adaptation. bioRxiv :773838.

Nunes K. A., C. R. Fitzpatrick, and P. M. Kotanen. 2019. Soil biota composition and the performance of a noxious weed across its invaded range. Ecography 42:1671-1681.

Samis K. E., J. R. Stinchcombe, and C. J. Murren. 2019. Population climatic history predicts phenotypic responses in novel environments for Arabidopsis thaliana in North America. American journal of botany 106:1068-1080.

Santangelo J. S., K. A. Thompson, and M. T. J. Johnson. 2019. Herbivores and plant defences affect selection on plant reproductive traits more strongly than pollinators. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 32:4-18.

Schultz B., and J. Koprivnikar. 2019. Free-living parasite infectious stages promote zooplankton abundance under the risk of predation. Oecologia 191:411-420.

Sikkink K. L., R. M. Reynolds, C. M. Ituarte, W. A. Cresko, and P. C. Phillips. 2019. Environmental and Evolutionary Drivers of the Modular Gene Regulatory Network Underlying Phenotypic Plasticity for Stress Resistance in the Nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 9:g3.200017.2018-982.

Start D., and S. De Lisle. 2019. Correction to: ‘Sexual dimorphism in a top predator (Notophthalmus viridescens) drives aquatic prey community assembly’. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 286:20182899.

Start D. 2019a. The Evolutionary Ecology of Traits and Trait-mediated Interactions.

Start D. 2019b. Individual and Population Differences Shape Species Interactions and Natural Selection. The American Naturalist 194:183-193.

Start D. 2019c. A Black Swan Event Drives Eco-Evolutionary Heterogeneity. Authorea Preprints .

Start D., and B. Gilbert. 2019. Trait variation across biological scales shapes community structure and ecosystem function. Ecology 100:e02769.

Start D., A. E. Weis, and B. Gilbert. 2019a. Indirect Interactions Shape Selection in a Multispecies Food Web. The American Naturalist 193:321-330.

Start D. 2019b. Ecological and Evolutionary Stochasticity Shape Natural Selection. The American Naturalist 195:705-716.

Timerman D., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2019. The spatial ecology of sex ratios in a dioecious plant: Relations between ramet and genet sex ratios. Journal of Ecology 107:1804-1816.

Uzunović J., E. B. Josephs, J. R. Stinchcombe, and S. I. Wright. 2019. Transposable elements are important contributors to standing variation in gene expression in Capsella grandiflora. Molecular biology and evolution 36:1734-1745.

Verbeek J. D., and P. M. Kotanen. 2019. Soil-mediated impacts of an invasive thistle inhibit the recruitment of certain native plants. Oecologia 190:619-628.

Austen E. J., S. Lin, and J. R. K. Forrest. 2018. On the ecological significance of pollen color: a case study in American trout lily (Erythronium americanum). Ecology 99:926-937.

Baines C. B., and S. J. McCauley. 2018. Natal habitat conditions have carryover effects on dispersal capacity and behavior. Ecosphere 9:e02465.

Balogh C. M., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2018. The influence of floral morph ratios and low plant density on mating and fertility in a tristylous colonizing species. Botany 96:533-545.

Balogh C. M. 2018. REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF PLANT INVASIONS: A CASE STUDY OF LYTHRUM SALICARIA (PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE). University of Toronto, .

Borges I. L., L. Z. Forsyth, D. Start, and B. Gilbert. 2018. Invader traits and resident functional diversity determine invader establishment in heterogeneous communities. ESA, .

Campbell L. G., S. J. Melles, E. Vaz, R. J. Parker, and K. S. Burgess. 2018. Pollen sleuthing for terrestrial plant surveys: Locating plant populations by exploiting pollen movement. Applications in Plant Sciences 6:e1020.

Chong V. K., H. F. Fung, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2018. A note on measuring natural selection on principal component scores. Evolution Letters 2:272-280.

De Lisle S. P., S. Paiva, and L. Rowe. 2018. Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes. Biology Letters 14:20180124.

Fitzpatrick C. 2018. Plant evolution, soil ecosystems, and feedback.

Fitzpatrick C. R., J. Copeland, P. W. Wang, D. S. Guttman, P. M. Kotanen, and M. T. J. Johnson. 2018a. Assembly and ecological function of the root microbiome across angiosperm plant species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115:E1157-E1165.

Fitzpatrick C. R., P. Lu-Irving, J. Copeland, D. S. Guttman, P. W. Wang, D. A. Baltrus, K. M. Dlugosch, and M. T. J. Johnson. 2018. Chloroplast sequence variation and the efficacy of peptide nucleic acids for blocking host amplification in plant microbiome studies. Microbiome 6:144.

Fitzpatrick C. R., A. V. Mikhailitchenko, D. N. Anstett, and M. T. J. Johnson. 2018b. The influence of range-wide plant genetic variation on soil invertebrate communities. Ecography 41:1135-1146.

Frances D., and S. McCauley. 2018. Warming drives higher rates of prey consumption and increases rates of intraguild predation. Oecologia 187:585-596.

Franks S. J., E. Hamann, and A. E. Weis. 2018. Using the resurrection approach to understand contemporary evolution in changing environments. Evolutionary Applications 11:17-28.

French S. K., and S. J. McCauley. 2018. Canopy cover affects habitat selection by adult dragonflies. Hydrobiologia 818:129-143.

Gilbert B., D. Start, and T. N. Grainger. 2018. Scaling from trophic traits to community function. ESA, .

Grainger T. N., A. I. Rego, and B. Gilbert. 2018. Temperature-dependent species interactions shape priority effects and the persistence of unequal competitors. The American Naturalist 191:197-209.

Lu B., and Y. He. 2018. Optimal spatial resolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-acquired imagery for species classification in a heterogeneous grassland ecosystem. GIScience & Remote Sensing 55:205-220.

Lu B., Y. He, and H. H. T. Liu. 2018. Mapping vegetation biophysical and biochemical properties using unmanned aerial vehicles-acquired imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 39:5265-5287.

McGoey B. V., and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2018. Introduced populations of ragweed show as much evolutionary potential as native populations.

Nunes K. A., and P. M. Kotanen. 2018a. Does local isolation allow an invasive thistle to escape enemy pressure? Oecologia 188:139-147.

Nunes K. A., and P. M. Kotanen. 2018b. Comparative impacts of aboveground and belowground enemies on an invasive thistle. Ecology and Evolution 8:1430-1440.

Peters M. A. E., and A. E. Weis. 2018. Selection for pollen competitive ability in mixed‐mating systems. Evolution 72:2513-2536.

Searcy C. A., B. Gilbert, M. Krkošek, L. Rowe, and S. J. McCauley. 2018. Positive correlation between dispersal and body size in Green Frogs (Rana clamitans) naturally colonizing an experimental landscape. Can. J. Zool. 96:1378-1384.

Searcy C. A., B. Gilbert, M. Krkošek, L. Rowe, and S. J. McCauley. 2018. Positive correlation between dispersal and body size in green frogs (Rana clamitans) naturally colonizing an experimental landscape. Canadian Journal of Zoology 96:1378-1384.

Start D. 2018a. Keystone individuals alter ecological and evolutionary consumer-resource dynamics. The American Naturalist 191:277-286.

Start D. 2018b. Ontogeny and Consistent Individual Differences Mediate Trophic Interactions. The American Naturalist 192:301-310.

Start D. 2018c. Predator macroevolution drives trophic cascades and ecosystem functioning. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285:20180384.

Start D. 2018d. Animal behaviour and algal camouflage jointly structure predation and selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 31:773-778.

Start D., and B. Gilbert. 2018. Plant sex alters Allee effects in aggregating plant parasites. Oikos 127:792-802.

Start D., and S. De Lisle. 2018. Sexual dimorphism in a top predator (Notophthalmus viridescens) drives aquatic prey community assembly. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285:20181717.

Start D., and D. Kirk. 2018. Population isolation predicts the severity of historical human epidemics. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27:726-733.

Start D., S. McCauley, and B. Gilbert. 2018. Physiology underlies the assembly of ecological communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115:6016-6021.

Start D., C. Bonner, A. E. Weis, and B. Gilbert. 2018. Consumer-resource interactions along urbanization gradients drive natural selection*. Evolution 72:1863-1873.

Timerman D., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2018. Divergent selection on the biomechanical properties of stamens under wind and insect pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285:20182251.

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Sherrard M. E., and H. Maherali. 2012. Local adaptation across a fertility gradient is influenced by soil biota in the invasive grass, Bromus inermis. Evol Ecol 26:529-544.

Srivastava D. S., M. W. Cadotte, A. A. M. MacDonald, R. G. Marushia, and N. Mirotchnick. 2012. Phylogenetic diversity and the functioning of ecosystems. Ecology Letters 15:637-648.

Whitehead M., and M. E. Isaac. 2012. Effects of Shade on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Acquisition in Cereal-Legume Intercropping Systems. Agriculture (Basel) 2:12-24.

Burgess K. S., A. J. Fazekas, P. R. Kesanakurti, S. W. Graham, B. C. Husband, S. G. Newmaster, D. M. Percy, M. Hajibabaei, and S. C. H. Barrett. 2011. Discriminating plant species in a local temperate flora using the rbcL+matK DNA barcode. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2:333-340.

Casagrande R. A., A. Weed, A. Hazlehurst, L. Tewksbury, A. Gassmann, R. Bourchier, P. G. Mason, D. C. RA, B. Gallant, and D. R. Gillespie. 2011. A petition for experimental open-field release of Hypena opulenta a potential biological control agent of swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum) in North America. Appendix E. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, .

Darling E. S., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2011. Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium Grandiflorum. Journal of pollination ecology 5:81-85.

Friedman J., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2011a. Genetic and Environmental Control of Temporal and Size-Dependent Sex Allocation in a Wind-Pollinated Plant. Evolution 65:2061-2074.

Friedman J., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2011b. The Evolution of Ovule Number and Flower Size in Wind-Pollinated Plants. The American Naturalist 177:246-257.

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Hallett P. 2011b. Monitored in-the-field emergence of Spider Wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse in 2005.

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Hill S. B., and P. M. Kotanen. 2011b. Biotic interactions experienced by a new invader: effects of its close relatives at the community scale. Botany 90:35-42.

Kasumovic M. M., A. C. Mason, M. C. B. Andrade, and D. O. Elias. 2011. The relative importance of RHP and resource quality in contests with ownership asymmetries. Behav Ecol 22:39-45.

Kesanakurti P. R., A. J. Fazekas, K. S. Burgess, D. M. Percy, S. G. Newmaster, S. W. Graham, S. C. H. Barrett, M. Hajibabaei, and B. C. Husband. 2011. Spatial patterns of plant diversity below-ground as revealed by DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology 20:1289-1302.

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Colautti R. I., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2010. Natural Selection and Genetic Constraints on Flowering Phenology in an Invasive Plant. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171:960-971.

Hill S., and P. Kotanen. 2010. Phylogenetically structured damage to Asteraceae: susceptibility of native and exotic species to foliar herbivores. Biol Invasions 12:3333-3342.

Kasumovic M. M., D. O. Elias, S. Sivalinghem, A. C. Mason, and M. C. B. Andrade. 2010. Examination of prior contest experience and the retention of winner and loser effects. Behavioral Ecology 21:404-409.

Koh S., D. R. Bazely, A. J. Tanentzap, D. R. Voigt, and E. Da Silva. 2010. Trillium grandiflorum height is an indicator of white-tailed deer density at local and regional scales. Forest ecology and management 259:1472-1479.

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MacDonald A. A. M., and P. M. Kotanen. 2010. The effects of disturbance and enemy exclusion on performance of an invasive species, common ragweed, in its native range. Oecologia 162:977-986.

MacDonald, A. A. n. d. r. e. w. M, and P. M. Kotanen. 2010. Leaf damage has weak effects on growth and fecundity of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Botany 88:158-164.

McCauley S. J., and L. Rowe. 2010. Notonecta Notonecta exhibit threat-sensitive, predator-induced dispersal. Biology Letters 6:449-452.

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FRANKS S. J., and A. E. WEIS. 2008. A change in climate causes rapid evolution of multiple life-history traits and their interactions in an annual plant. Journal of evolutionary biology 21:1321-1334.

Franks S. J., J. C. Avise, W. E. Bradshaw, J. K. Conner, J. R. Etterson, S. J. Mazer, R. G. Shaw, and A. E. Weis. 2008. The Resurrection Initiative: Storing Ancestral Genotypes to Capture Evolution in Action. BioScience 58:870-873.

Friedman J., and S. C. H. Barrett. 2008. High Outcrossing in the Annual Colonizing Species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae). Annals of botany 101:1303-1309.

Johnson M. T. J., R. Dinnage, A. Y. Zhou, and M. D. Hunter. 2008. Environmental variation has stronger effects than plant genotype on competition among plant species. Journal of Ecology :947-955.

Johnson M. T. J. 2008. BOTTOM-UP EFFECTS OF PLANT GENOTYPE ON APHIDS, ANTS, AND PREDATORS. Ecology (Durham) 89:145-154.

Kurczewski F. E. 2008. I. Geographic distribution and paleobiogeography of Tachysphex pechumani (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Northeastern Naturalist 15:1-32.

MacKay J., and P. M. Kotanen. 2008. Local Escape of an Invasive Plant, Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), from Above-Ground and Below-Ground Enemies in Its Native Area. The Journal of ecology 96:1152-1161.

Marc T. J. Johnson, Russell Dinnage, Alice Y. Zhou, and Mark D. Hunter. 2008. Environmental Variation Has Stronger Effects than Plant Genotype on Competition among Plant Species. The Journal of ecology 96:947-955.

McLenon-Porter T. M. 2008. Above and below ground fungal diversity in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario and the phylogenetic placement of a new Ascomycota subphylum. University of Toronto ON, Canada, .

Mooney K. A., P. Jones, and A. A. Agrawal. 2008. Coexisting congeners: demography, competition, and interactions with cardenolides for two milkweed-feeding aphids. Oikos 117:450-458.

Porter T. M., C. W. Schadt, L. Rizvi, A. P. Martin, S. K. Schmidt, L. Scott-Denton, R. Vilgalys, and J. M. Moncalvo. 2008. Widespread occurrence and phylogenetic placement of a soil clone group adds a prominent new branch to the fungal tree of life. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 46:635-644.

PORTER T. M., J. E. SKILLMAN, and J. MONCALVO. 2008. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario. Molecular ecology 17:3037-3050.

PUNZALAN D., M. COORAY, F. HELEN RODD, and L. ROWE. 2008. Condition dependence of sexually dimorphic colouration and longevity in the ambush bug Phymata americana. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:1297-1306.

Punzalan D., F. H. Rodd, and L. Rowe. 2008a. Sexual selection mediated by the thermoregulatory effects of male colour pattern in the ambush bug Phymata americana. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275:483-492.

Punzalan D., F. H. Rodd, and L. Rowe. 2008b. Contemporary sexual selection on sexually dimorphic traits in the ambush bug Phymata americana. Behavioral Ecology 19:860-870.

Thaler J. S., and C. A. M. Griffin. 2008. Relative importance of consumptive and non‐consumptive effects of predators on prey and plant damage: the influence of herbivore ontogeny. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 128:34-40.

VISWANATHAN D. V., G. McNICKLE, and J. S. THALER. 2008. Heterogeneity of plant phenotypes caused by herbivore-specific induced responses influences the spatial distribution of herbivores. Ecological entomology 33:86-94.

Baltzer J. L., and S. C. Thomas. 2007. Physiological and Morphological Correlates of Whole-Plant Light Compensation Point in Temperate Deciduous Tree Seedlings. Oecologia 153:209-223.

JOHNSON M. T. J. 2007. Genotype-by-environment interactions leads to variable selection on life-history strategy in Common Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis). Journal of evolutionary biology 20:190-200.

Johnson M. T. J., and A. A. Agrawal. 2007. Covariation and composition of arthropod species across plant genotypes of evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Oikos 116:941-956.

Kotanen P. M. 2007. Effects of fungal seed pathogens under conspecific and heterospecific trees in a temperate forest. Canadian journal of botany 85:918-925.

Viswanathan D. V., O. A. Lifchits, and J. S. Thaler. 2007. Consequences of Sequential Attack for Resistance to Herbivores When Plants Have Specific Induced Responses. Oikos 116:1389-1399.

Way D., S. Seegobin, and R. Sage. 2007. The effect of carbon and nutrient loading during nursery culture on the growth of black spruce seedlings: a six-year field study. New Forests 34:307-312.

Agrawal A. A., and M. Fishbein. 2006. Plant Defense Syndromes. Ecology (Durham) 87:S132-S166.

Fletcher Q. E., and R. Boonstra. 2006. Impact of live trapping on the stress response of the meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Journal of Zoology 270:473-478.

Griffin C. A. M., and J. S. Thaler. 2006. Insect predators affect plant resistance via density‐ and trait‐mediated indirect interactions. Ecology letters 9:338-346.

Hallett P. 2006. 08. A data base for farmed solitary bees and wasps: a preliminary notice. Abstract 13:1.

Johnson M. T. J., M. J. Lajeunesse, and A. A. Agrawal. 2006. Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities and plant fitness. Ecology Letters 9:24-34.

Mcguire R. J., and M. T. J. Johnson. 2006. Plant genotype and induced responses affect resistance to herbivores on evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Ecological entomology 31:20-31.

O’Hanlon-Manners D. L., and P. M. Kotanen. 2006. Losses of seeds of temperate trees to soil fungi: effects of habitat and host ecology. Plant Ecol 187:49-58.

Agrawal A. A. 2005. Natural selection on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) by a community of specialized insect herbivores.

Agrawal A. A., P. M. Kotanen, C. E. Mitchell, A. G. Power, W. Godsoe, and J. Klironomos. 2005. ENEMY RELEASE? AN EXPERIMENT WITH CONGENERIC PLANT PAIRS AND DIVERSE ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND ENEMIES. Ecology (Durham) 86:2979-2989.

Baltzer J. L., and S. C. Thomas. 2005. Leaf optical responses to light and soil nutrient availability in temperate deciduous trees. American journal of botany 92:214-223.

Conner J. K., and A. A. Agrawal. 2005. Mechanisms of constraints: the contributions of selection and genetic variance to the maintenance of cotyledon number in wild radish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:238-242.

Danush V. Viswanathan, Anita J. T. Narwani, and Jennifer S. Thaler. 2005. Specificity in Induced Plant Responses Shapes Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence on Solanum dulcamara. Ecology (Durham) 86:886-896.

Genton B. J., P. M. Kotanen, P. Cheptou, C. Adolphe, and J. A. Shykoff. 2005. Enemy release but no evolutionary loss of defence in a plant invasion: an inter-continental reciprocal transplant experiment. Oecologia 146:404-414.

Johnson M. T. J., and A. A. Agrawal. 2005. PLANT GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACT TO SHAPE A DIVERSE ARTHROPOD COMMUNITY ON EVENING PRIMROSE (OENOTHERA BIENNIS). Ecology (Durham) 86:874-885.

Kurashige N. S., and A. A. Agrawal. 2005. Phenotypic plasticity to light competition and herbivory in Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae). American Journal of Botany 92:21-26.

McGUIRE R., and A. A. AGRAWAL. 2005. Trade-offs between the shade-avoidance response and plant resistance to herbivores? Tests with mutant Cucumis sativus. Functional ecology 19:1025-1031.

Rodriguez-Saona C., and J. S. Thaler. 2005. Herbivore-induced responses and patch heterogeneity affect abundance of arthropods on plants. Ecological entomology 30:156-163.

Viswanathan D. V., A. J. T. Narwani, and J. S. Thaler. 2005. Specificity in induced plant responses shapes patterns of herbivore occurrence on Solanum dulcamara. Ecology 86:886-896.

Agrawal A. 2004. Plant Defense and Density Dependence in the Population Growth of Herbivores. The American naturalist 164:113-120.

Agrawal A. A. 2004. RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MILKWEED: COMPETITION, ROOT HERBIVORY, AND PLANT GENETIC VARIATION. Ecology (Durham) 85:2118-2133.

Agrawal A. A., N. Underwood, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2004. Intraspecific variation in the strength of density dependence in aphid populations. Ecological entomology 29:521-526.

Agrawal A. A., J. K. Conner, and J. R. Stinchcombe. 2004. Evolution of plant resistance and tolerance to frost damage. Ecology Letters 7:1199-1208.

Barrett R., and A. Agrawal. 2004. Interactive Effects of Genotype, Environment, and Ontogeny on Resistance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to the Generalist Herbivore, Spodoptera exigua. J Chem Ecol 30:37-51.

Buck M. 2004. An annotated checklist of the spheciform wasps of Ontario (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Sphecidae and Crabronidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 134:19-84.

D. L. O’Hanlon-Manners, and P. M. Kotanen. 2004a. Evidence That Fungal Pathogens Inhibit Recruitment of a Shade-Intolerant Tree, White Birch (Betula papyrifera), in Understory Habitats. Oecologia 140:650-653.

D. L. O’Hanlon-Manners, and P. M. Kotanen. 2004b. Logs as Refuges from Fungal Pathogens for Seeds of Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Ecology (Durham) 85:284-289.

Schafer M., and P. M. Kotanen. 2004. Impacts of naturally-occurring soil fungi on seeds of meadow plants. Plant Ecology 175:19-35.

Seymour K. 2004. An Architectural-historical Report on the Koffler Scientific Reserve at Joker’s Hill. University of Toronto, .

Thaler J. S., B. Owen, and V. J. Higgins. 2004. The Role of the Jasmonate Response in Plant Susceptibility to Diverse Pathogens with a Range of Lifestyles. Plant physiology (Bethesda) 135:530-538.

Van Zandt P. A., and A. A. Agrawal. 2004. Specificity of induced plant responses to specialist herbivores of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca. Oikos 104:401-409.

Viswanathan D. V., and J. S. Thaler. 2004. Plant Vascular Architecture and Within-Plant Spatial Patterns in Resource Quality Following Herbivory. J Chem Ecol 30:531-543.

Agrawal A. A., and P. A. Van Zandt. 2003. Ecological play in the coevolutionary theatre: genetic and environmental determinants of attack by a specialist weevil on milkweed. The Journal of ecology 91:1049-1059.

Agrawal A. A., and P. M. Kotanen. 2003. Herbivores and the success of exotic plants: a phylogenetically controlled experiment. Ecology letters 6:712-715.

Rotem K. A., and A. A. Agrawal. 2003. Density Dependent Population Growth of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, on the Host Plant Leonurus cardiaca. Oikos 103:559-565.

Schafer M., and P. M. Kotanen. 2003. The influence of soil moisture on losses of buried seeds to fungi. Acta oecologica (Montrouge) 24:255-263.

Blaney C. S., and P. M. Kotanen. 2001. Effects of fungal pathogens on seeds of native and exotic plants: a test using congeneric pairs. The Journal of applied ecology 38:1104-1113.

Sage T. L., S. R. Griffin, V. Pontieri, P. Drobac, W. W. Cole, and S. C. H. Barrett. 2001. Stigmatic Self-Incompatibility and Mating Patterns in Trillium grandiflorum and Trillium erectum(Melanthiaceae). Annals of botany 88:829-841.

Barrett S. C., A. M. Baker, and L. K. Jesson. 2000. Mating strategies in monocotyledons. Systematics and evolution of monocots 2:258-269.

Wright S. I., and S.C.H. Barrett. 1999. Size-dependent gender modification in a hermaphroditic perennial herb. Proceedings of the Royal Society. B, Biological sciences 266:225-232.