KSR Plants

Vascular Plants of Jokers Hill

back to Species lists & Maps

King Township, Regional Municipality of York

C.S. Blaney and Peter M. Kotanen*

Dec 17, 2014

*Correspondence author

The following list is based on observations and collections by the authors between 1997 and 1999, with later additions; see Blaney (1999) for details. Approximately 160 species (indicated by ) are documented by specimens which will be deposited at the Royal Ontario Museum – University of Toronto herbarium (TRT). The remainder of listed species are included on the basis of the author’s sight records, with three exceptions. S. Varga, OMNR Aurora, provided field notes from a 1983 visit to the site, which added Corallorhiza trifida and Vaccinium angustifolium to the list. R. Joos, University of Toronto Department of Botany, added Dryopteris goldiana. Marc Johnson, University of Toronto Department of Botany, provided records for several species not previously recorded. Justin Ancheta added Campanula persicifolia. Gilbert Tang added Descurainia sophia. Ivana Stehlik added Euphorbia esula. Steve Hill added Crepis capillaris. Tim Dickinson and Annabel Por added Crataegus ?succulenta, Crataegus chrysocarpa, and Crataegus submollis. We have been quite careful to include only species which have been identified with certainty, and have collected voucher specimens for all difficult identifications. Very little investigation of the flora of the site had been carried out prior to its donation to the University of Toronto. The eastern half of the property is almost entirely included by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources within the Glenville Hills Kames Earth Science Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. The Natural Heritage Information Centre at the OMNR office in Peterborough supplied two sources of botanical information on this ANSI. These were a list of 5 “rare” plant species in an environmentally significant areas study prepared for the South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority (Ecologistics 1982) and a partial list of plants found at the adjacent Thornton Bales Conservation Area (South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority undated). These reports included problematic records and did not note whether species were recorded on the Jokers Hill property. Due to these difficulties the list below was started from scratch.

The list includes all species known to be growing outside of cultivation within the Jokers Hill property. Also listed are native species found in land adjacent to the Jokers Hill property, but not yet found on the site (scientific name preceded by “*” – 13 species). A total of 631 taxa (species and hybrids) are listed; 450 taxa are considered native to Jokers Hill (those listed in bold typeface) and 181 are considered non-native (listed in regular typeface). Determining native versus non-native status required a few rather arbitrary judgements.

Several people assisted in the preparation of this list. P. Ball of the University of Toronto at Mississauga and A. Reznicek of the University of Michigan assisted with a number of difficult identifications, especially in the Cyperaceae. T. Dickinson and J. Bull of the Royal Ontario Museum identified the Crataegus specimens. Warren Wagner at the United States National Herbarium identified Oenothera biennis, Oenothera parviflora, and Oenothera villosa subsp. villosa. Peter Kotanen formatted the document for the world wide web (http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/jokershill/jhplants.html). Jarmo Jalava of the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Center compiled the pre-existing information on the site.

Taxonomy, with only a few exceptions, follows Morton and Venn (1990). Where widely used synonyms or other potentially confusing alternate binomials exist, these are listed below the species’ scientific name. As there are no standard English names for plant species, common names have been taken from a variety of sources. Although we have visited all parts of the property looking for plants, many additional species will still be found with further field work. Information on any additional species (preferably with specimens) or other comments on the list would be welcomed by the authors.

Vascular Plants of Jokers Hill
Last update:   Dec 17, 2014

Print friendly field version (pdf)



(Horsetail Family)

Equisetum arvense L. Field Horsetail
Equisetum fluviatile L. Water Horsetail
Equisetum hyemale L. Rough Horsetail
Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Meadow Horsetail
Equisetum scirpoides Michx. Dwarf Scouring-rush
Equisetum sylvaticum L. Woodland Horsetail
Equisetum variegatum Schleich. Variegated Horsetail


(Club-moss Family)

Lycopodium clavatum L. Staghorn Clubmoss
Lycopodium digitatum A. Braun Running Ground-cedar
          (L. flabelliforme)  
Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. Shining Clubmoss
Lycopodium obscurum L. (s.st.) Tree Clubmoss
Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh Ground-cedar


(Grape-fern Family)

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. Dissected Grape-fern
          (B. obliquum)  
Botrychium matricariaefolium A. Braun ex. Koch Chamomile Grape-fern
Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr. Leathery Grape-fern
Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rattlesnake Fern


(Flowering-fern Family)

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern
Osmunda claytoniana L. Interrupted Fern
Osmunda regalis L. Royal Fern


(Maidenhair Fern Family)

Adiantum pedatum L. Maidenhair Fern


(Polypody Family)

Polypodium virginianum L. Rock Polypody


(Bracken-fern Family)

Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. Moore Hay-scented Fern
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Bracken Fern


(Marsh-fern Family)

Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Watt Northern Beech-fern
Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. New York Fern
Thelypteris palustris (Salisb.) Schott. Marsh Fern


(Spleenwort Family)

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes ex. D. Eaton  Ebony Spleenwort


(Wood-fern Family)

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth. Lady Fern
Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv. Silvery Glade-fern
Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. Bulblet Fern
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Fragile Fern
Dryopteris x boottii (Tuckerman) Underw. Boott’s Wood-fern
Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs Spinulose Wood-fern
          (D. intermedia x D. cristata)  
Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray Crested Fern
Dryopteris goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray Goldie’s Fern
Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) A. Gray Intermediate Wood-fern
          (D. spinulosa var. intermedia)  
Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray Marginal Shield-fern
Dryopteris x triploidea Wherry Triploid Wood-fern
          (D. intermedia x D. carthusiana)  
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Oak Fern
Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro Ostrich Fern
Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern
Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott Christmas Fern


(Yew Family)

Taxus canadensis Marsh. Canada Yew


(Pine Family)

Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch Tamarack
Picea glauca (Moench) Voss White Spruce
Pinus strobus L. White Pine
Pinus sylvestris L. Scots Pine
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Eastern Hemlock


(Cypress Family)

Juniperus communis L. Common Juniper
Juniperus virginiana L. Eastern Red Cedar
Thuja occidentalis L. Eastern White Cedar


(Cat-tail Family)

Typha angustifolia L. Narrow-leaved Cat-tail
Typha latifolia L. Common Cat-tail


(Bur-reed Family)

Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb. Green Bur-reed


(Pondweed Family)

Potamogeton pectinatus L. Sago Pondweed


(Naiad Family)

Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostkov & W. Schmidt Flexible Naiad


(Water-plantain Family)

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Water-plantain
          (A. triviale)  
Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Common Arrowhead


(Grass Family)

†Agrostis gigantea Roth. Redtop
Agrostis scabra Willd. Tickle Grass
          (A. hyemalis)  
Agrostis stolonifera L. Creeping Bent Grass
Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. Short-awn Foxtail
Avena sativa L. Oats
Avena sativa L. Oats
*Brachyeletrum erectum (Schreber) Beauv. Bearded Shorthusk
Bromus ciliatus L. Fringed Brome
Bromus inermis Leyss. Awnless Brome
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Canada Bluejoint
Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. Drooping Woodreed
Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass
Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Poverty Grass
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. Smooth Crab-grass
†Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Large Crab-grass
†Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Barnyard Grass
Echinochloa wiegandii (Fasset) McNeil & Dore Western Barnyard Grass
Elymus repens (L.) Gould Quack Grass
          (Agropyron repens)  
Elymus virginicus L. Virginia Wild Rye
Festuca arundinacea Schr. Fall Fescue
          (F. elatior, in part)  
Festuca rubra L. Red Fescue
Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) A. Alex. Nodding Fescue
          (F. obtusa)  
Festuca brevipila Tracey Sheep Fescue
          (F. trachyphylla, F. ovina)
Glyceria grandis S. Wats. Tall Manna-grass
Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. Fowl Manna-grass
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Rice Cut -grass
Lolium perenne L. Rye Grass
Milium effusum L. Wild Millet
Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Mexican Muhly-grass
Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Rough-leaved Mountain-rice
Panicum acuminatum Sw. Tufted Panic-grass
          (P. lanuginosum, Dichanthelium acuminatum)  
Panicum capillare L. Common Witch Grass
Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Depauperate Panic-grass
Panicum linearifolium Scrib. Linear-leaved Panic-grass
Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary Grass
Phleum pratense L. Timothy
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Common Reed-grass
          (P. communis)  
Poa annua L. Annual Bluegrass
Poa compressa L. Canada Bluegrass
Poa palustris L. Swamp Bluegrass
Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Bluegrass
Poa alsodes L. Woodland Bluegrass
Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen. False Melic Grass
†Setaria pumila (Poiret) Schultes White Foxtail
          (S. glauca)
†Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Green Foxtail
Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. Slender Wedge Grass
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray Sand Dropseed
Sporobolus neglectus Nash Overlooked Dropseed
Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Torr. Ensheathed Dropseed


(Sedge Family)

Carex albursina E. Sheldon Broad-leaved Sedge
Carex aquatilis Wahl. Aquatic Sedge
Carex arctata Boott Compressed Sedge
Carex aurea Nutt. Golden-fruited Sedge
*Carex backii Boott Back’s Sedge
Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern. Bebb’s Sedge
Carex blanda Dewey White Sedge
Carex cephalophora Muhl. One-headed Sedge
Carex communis Bailey Common Sedge
Carex cristatella Britt. Crested Sedge
Carex deweyana Schwein. Dewey’s Sedge
Carex disperma Dewey Two-seeded Sedge
Carex flava L. Yellow Sedge
Carex gracillima Schwein. Filiform Sedge
Carex granularis Muhl. Granular Sedge
*Carex hirtifolia Mack. Hairy-leaved Sedge
Carex hitchcockiana Dewey Hitchcock’s Sedge
Carex hystericina Muhl. Porcupine Sedge
Carex interior Bailey Interior Sedge
*Carex intumescens Rudge Bladder Sedge
Carex laevivaginata (Kuk.) Mack. Smooth-sheathed Sedge
Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. Slender Sedge
Carex laxiflora Lam. Loose-flowered Sedge
Carex leptalea Wahl. Bristle-stalked Sedge
Carex leptonervia (Fern.) Fern. Finely-nerved Sedge
Carex lupulina Muhlenb. ex Willd. Common Hop Sedge
Carex muhlenbergii Schk. Muhlenberg’s Sedge
Carex peckii Howe Peck’s Sedge
Carex pedunculata Muhl. Peduncled Sedge
Carex pensylvanica Lam. Pennsylvania Sedge
Carex plantaginea Lam. Plantain-leaved Sedge
Carex platyphylla J. Carey Broad-leaved Sedge
*Carex projecta Mack. Necklace Sedge
Carex pseudo-cyperus L. False-cyperus Sedge
Carex radiata (Wahl.) Small Radiate Sedge
Carex retrorsa Schwein. Backward Sedge
Carex rosea Schk. Rose Sedge
          (C. convoluta)  
Carex rugosperma Mack. Rough-seeded Sedge
Carex scabrata Schwein. Rough Sedge
Carex schweinitzii Dewey ex Schwein. Hybrid
          x utriculata Boott  
Carex sparganioides Willd. Bur-reed Sedge
†Carex spicata Hudson Spiked Sedge
Carex sprengellii Dewey Sprengel’s Sedge
Carex stipata Muhl. Crowded Sedge
Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Foxtail Sedge
Cyperus bipartitus Torrey River Cyperus
Cyperus lupulinus (Sprengel) Marcks Cyperus
          (C. rivularis)  
Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. Red-foot Spikerush
Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schultes Blunt Spikerush
Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Blackish Bulrush
Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Wool-grass
Scirpus microcarpus Presl. Red-sheathed Bulrush
          (S. rubrotinctus)  
Scirpus validus L. (s.st.) Soft-stem Bulrush


(Arum Family)

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Jack-in-the-Pulpit


(Duckweed Family)

Lemna minor L. Lesser Duckweed
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Greater Duckweed
Wolffia columbiana Karst. Water-meal


(Rush Family)

Juncus articulatus L. Jointed Rush
Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. Short-tailed Rush
†Juncus compressus Jacq. Compressed Rush
Juncus bufonius L. Toad Rush
Juncus dudleyi Wieg. Dudley’s Rush
Juncus effusus L. Soft-stem Rush
Juncus nodosus L. Knotted Rush
Juncus tenuis Willd. Slender Rush
Juncus torreyi Cov. Torrey’s Rush


(Lily Family)

Allium tricoccum Ait. Wild Leek
Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus
Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Bluebead Lily
Erythronium americanum Ker Gawler Yellow Trout-lily
Hemerocallis fulva L. Day Lily
Maianthemum canadense Desf. Canada Mayflower
Maianthemum racemosa (L.) Link False Solomon’s-seal
          (Smilacina racemosa)  
Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link Starry False Solomon’s-seal
          (Smilacina stellata)  
Medeola virginiana L. Indian Cucumber-root
Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh Hairy Solomon’s-seal
Smilax herbacea L. Carrion Flower
Smilax hispida Torr. Bristly Greenbrier
Streptopus roseus Michx. Rose Twisted-stalk
Trillium erectum L. Red Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. White Trillium
Uvularia grandiflora Sm. Large-flowered Bellwort


(Iris Family)

Iris versicolor L. Blue Flag
Sisyrinchium montanum Greene Blue-eyed Grass


(Orchid Family)

*Corallorhiza cf. maculata (Raf.) Raf. Spotted Coralroot
Corallorhiza trifida Chat. Early Coralroot
Cypripedium calceolus L. Yellow Lady’s-slipper
(C. pubescens, C. parviflorum)  
Cypripedium reginae Walter Showy Lady’s-slipper
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Helleborine
Galearis spectabilis (L.) Raf. Showy Orchis
Liparis loeselii (L.) Richard Loesel’s Twayblade
*Malaxis monopyllos (L.) Swallen White Adder’s-mouth
Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindley Northern Green Orchid
Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich Nodding Ladies’-tresses


(Dutchman’s-pipe Family)

Asarum canadense L. Wild Ginger


(Willow Family)

Populus balsamifera L. Balsam Poplar
Populus grandidentata Michx. Large-toothed Aspen
Populus tremuloides Michx. Trembling Aspen
Salix amygdaloides Anderss. Peach-leaved Willow
Salix bebbiana Sarg. Beaked Willow
Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow
Salix exigua Nutt. Sandbar Willow
Salix eriocephala Michx. Stiff Willow
†Salix cf. x rubens Schrank Hybrid Willow
          (S. fragilis x S. alba)  
Salix lucida Muhl. Shining Willow
Salix petiolaris Smith Slender Willow
Salix serissima (L. Bailey) Fern. Autumn Willow


(Walnut Family)

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch Bitternut Hickory
Juglans cinerea L. Butternut


(Birch Family)

Betula alleghaniensis Britton Yellow Birch
Betula papyrifera Marsh. White Birch
Carpinus caroliniana Walt Blue Beech
Corylus cornuta Marsh. Beaked Hazel
Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch Hop Hornbeam


(Beech Family)

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American Beech
Quercus alba L. White Oak
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Bur Oak
Quercus rubra L. Red Oak


(Elm Family)

Ulmus americana L. American Elm


(Nettle Family)

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle
Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd. Wood Nettle
Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb. Dark-seeded Clearweed
Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray Clearweed
Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis Ait. Tall Nettle


(Buckwheat Family)

Polygonum achoreum Blake Homeless Knotweed
Polygonum aviculare L. Prostrate Knotweed
Polygonum convolvulus L. Black Bindweed
†Polygonum hydropiper L. Water Pepper
Polygonum lapathifolium L. Nodding Smartweed
Polygonum persicaria L. Lady’s-thumb
Rumex acetosella L. Sheep Sorrel
Rumex crispus L. Curled Dock
Rumex obtusifolius L. Bitter Dock
Rumex orbiculatus Gray Great Water Dock


(Goosefoot Family)

Atriplex patula L. Spearscale
Chenopodium album L. Lamb’s Quarters
†Chenopodium glaucum L. Oak-leaved Goosefoot
†Chenopodium rubrum L. Coast Blite
Chenopodium simplex (Torrey) Raf. Maple-leaved Goosefoot


(Amaranth Family)

†Amaranthus albus L. Tumbleweed
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Pigweed


(Purslane Family)

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Wide-leaved Spring Beauty
Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane


(Pink Family)

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort
Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Mouse-ear Chickweed
          (C. vulgatum)  
Dianthus armeria L. Deptford Pink
Saponaria officinalis L. Bouncing Bet
Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy Catchfly
Silene latifolia Poiret White Campion
          (S. alba, Lychnis alba)
Silene noctiflora L. Night-flowering Catchfly
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Bladder Campion
†Stellaria graminea L. Grass-leaved Stitchwort
Stellaria longifolia Willd. Long-leaved Stitchwort
Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo Common Chickweed


(Crowfoot Family)

Actaea pachypoda (L.) Mill. White Baneberry
Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Red Baneberry
Actaea x ludovici Boivin Hybrid Baneberry
          (A. pachypoda x A. rubra)  
Anemone cylindrica A. Gray Long-fruited Anemone
Anemone virginiana L. Thimbleweed
Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine
†Aquilegia vulgaris L. Garden Columbine
Caltha palustris L. Marsh Marigold
Clematis virginiana L. Virgin’s Bower
Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. Goldthread
Hepatica acutiloba DC. Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Ranunculus abortivus L. Kidney-leaved Buttercup
Ranunculus acris L. Common Buttercup
Ranunculus recurvatus Poiret Hooked Buttercup
Ranunculus sceleratus L. Cursed Buttercup
Thalictrum dioicum L. Early Meadow Rue
Thalictrum pubescens Pursh Tall Meadow-rue


(Barberry Family)

Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese Barberry
Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. Blue Cohosh
Podophyllum peltatum L. May-apple


(Poppy Family)

Chelidonium majus L. Celandine
Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot


(Corydalis Family)

Dicentra canadensis (L.) Bernh. Squirrel Corn


(Caper Family)

†Cleome hassleriana Chodat Spider Flower
          (C. spinosa)


(Mustard Family)

Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cav. & Gr. Garlic Mustard
          (A. officinalis)
Alyssum alysoides (L.) L. Yellow Alyssum
Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. Smooth Rock-cress
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Yellow Rocket
†Camelina microcarpa Andrz. Small-seeded False-flax
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Shepherd’s Purse
Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood Toothwort
          (Dentaria diphylla)  
†Cardamine hirsuta L. Hairy Bitter-cress
Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania Bitter-cress
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Herb Sophia
Erophila verna (L.) Bess. Spring Whitlow-grass
          (Draba verna)
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Wormseed Mustard
Hesperis matronalis L. Dame’s Rocket
Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br. Field Pepper-grass
Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. Dense-flower Pepper-grass
Nasturtium officinale R. Br Water-cress
Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser ssp. hispida (Desv.) Jonsell Marsh Yellow-cress
Sinapis arvensis L. Charlock
          (Brassica kaber)  
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Hedge Mustard
Thlaspi arvense L. Field Penny-cress


(Orpine Family)

Sedum acre L. Mossy Stonecrop
Sedum telephium L. Live-forever


(Saxifrage Family)

Chrysosplenium americanum Hooker Golden Saxifrage
Mitella diphylla L. Bishop’s-cap Mitrewort
Mitella nuda L. Naked Mitrewort
Tiarella cordifolia L. Foamflower


(Gooseberry Family)

†Ribes alpinum L. Alpine Currant
Ribes americanum Mill. Wild Black Currant
Ribes cynosbati L. Prickly Gooseberry
Ribes hirtellum Michx. Hairy Gooseberry
*Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. Bristly Black Currant
Ribes rubrum L. European Red Currant
Ribes triste Pallas Swamp Red Currant


(Witch-hazel Family)

Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch-hazel


(Rose Family)

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Hooked Agrimony
Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. Canada Serviceberry
Amelanchier interior Nielson Interior Serviceberry
Amelanchier laevis Wieg. Smooth Serviceberry
Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe Fireberry Hawthorn
Crataegus sect. Coccineae Hawthorn sp. – section Coccineae
Crataegus macracantha Lodd. Large-thorned Hawthorn
          (C. succulenta var. macracantha)  
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. English Hawthorn
Crataegus punctata Jacq. Dotted Hawthorn
Crataegus submollis Sarg. Quebec Hawthorn
Crataegus ?succulenta Schrad. ex Link Fleshy Hawthorn
Fragaria vesca L. Woodland Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana Dechesne Wild Strawberry
Geum aleppicum Jacq. Yellow Avens
Geum canadense Jacq. White Avens
Geum laciniatum Murr. Slashed Avens
Geum rivale L. Water Avens
Geum urbanum L. Clover-root
Malus pumila Miller Apple
          (Pyrus malus)  
Potentilla arguta Pursh Tall Cinquefoil
Potentilla norvegica L. Rough Cinquefoil
Potentilla recta L. Sulphur Cinquefoil
Prunus nigra Ait. Canada Plum
Prunus pensylvanica L.f. Pin Cherry
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Black Cherry
Prunus virginiana L. Choke Cherry
Pyrus communis L. Pear
Rosa blanda Ait. Smooth Wild Rose
Rosa carolina L. Pasture Rose
Rosa multiflora Thunb. Multiflora Rose
Rubus allegheniensis Porter Common Blackberry
Rubus idaeus var. strigosus L. Red Raspberry
          (R. strigosus)  
Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry
Rubus odoratus L. Purple-flowering Raspberry
Rubus pubescens Raf. Dwarf Raspberry
Sorbus aucuparia L. European Mountain-ash
Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. Barren Strawberry


(Bean Family)

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Hog-peanut
Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. Showy Tick Trefoil
Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl.) Wood Glutinous Tick-trefoil
Gleditsia triacanthos L. Honey Locust
Lotus corniculatus L. Bird’s-foot Trefoil
Medicago lupulina L. Black Medick
Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa
Melilotus alba Medikus White Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas Yellow Sweet Clover
Robinia pseudo-acacia L. Black Locust
Trifolium campestre Schr. Pinnate-leaved Hop Clover
          (T. procumbens)  
Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover
Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover
Trifolium repens L. White Clover
Vicia cracca L. Cow Vetch
Vicia sativa L. Spring Vetch
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench Sparrow Vetch


(Wood Sorrel Family)

Oxalis acetosella L. Wood Sorrel
Oxalis stricta L. Yellow Sorrel
          (O. fontana, O. europaea)  


(Geranium Family)

Geranium robertianum L. Herb Robert


(Spurge Family)

Acalypha virginica Raf. Three-seeded Mercury
          (A. rhomboidea)  
†Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small Engraved Spurge
          (Euphorbia glyptosperma)  
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small Spotted Spurge
(Euphorbia supina, E. maculata)  
Euphorbia cyparissias L. Cypress Spurge
Euphorbia esula L. Leafy Spurge


(Polygala Family)

Polygala paucifolia Willd. Fringed Polygala


(Cashew Family)

Rhus radicans L. Poison Ivy
          (Toxicodendron radicans)  
Rhus typhina L. Staghorn Sumac


(Bittersweet Family)

Celastrus scandens L. Bittersweet
†Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold Winged Euonymus


(Maple Family)

†Acer ginnala Maxim. Amur Maple
Acer negundo L. Manitoba Maple
*Acer nigrum Michx. f. Black Maple
Acer platanoides L. Norway Maple
Acer rubrum L. Red Maple
Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple
Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple
Acer spicatum Lam. Mountain Maple


(Touch-Me-Not Family)

Impatiens capensis Meerb. Spotted Touch-Me-Not


(Buckhorn Family)

Rhamnus cathartica L. Common Buckthorn


(Vine Family)

Parthenocissus inserta (Kerner) Fritsch Virginia Creeper
          (P. vitacea)  
Vitis riparia Michx. Wild Grape


(Linden Family)

Tilia americana L. Basswood
†Tilia cordata Mill. Little-leaf Linden


(Mallow Family)

Malva neglecta Wallr. Common Mallow


(St. Johnswort Family)

Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. Johnswort
Hypericum punctatum Lam. Dotted St. Johnswort


(Rock-rose Family)

Lechea intermedia Britt. Intermediate Pinweed


(Violet Family)

Viola arvensis Murray Small Wild Pansy
Viola blanda Willd. Sweet White Violet
Viola canadensis L. Canada Violet
Viola conspersa Reich. Dog Violet
Viola cucullata Ait. Marsh Blue Violet
Viola mackloskeyi F. Lloyd Northern White Violet
Viola pubescens Ait. Downy Yellow Violet
          (incl. V. pensylvanica, V. eriocarpa)  
Viola renifolia Gray Kidney-leaved Violet
Viola rostrata Pursh Long-spurred Violet
Viola selkirkii Pursh Selkirk’s Violet
Viola sororia Willd. (s.l.) Wooly Blue Violet


(Mezereum Family)

Dirca palustris L. Leatherwood


(Loosestrife Family)

Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosestrife


(Evening Primrose Family)

Circaea alpina L. Small Enchanter’s-nightshade
Circaea lutetiana L. Tall Enchanter’s-nightshade
          (C. quadrisulcata)  
Epilobium ciliatum Raf. Northern Willow-herb
          (incl. E. adenocaulon, E. glandulosum)  
†Epilobium hirsutum L. Hairy Willowherb
Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. Narrow-leaved Willowherb
Epilobium parviflorum Schreber Small-flowered Willowherb
Epilobium strictum Spreng. Downy Willowherb
Oenothera biennis L. Evening-primrose
Oenothera parviflora L. Northern Evening-primrose
Oenothera perennis L. Perennial Evening-primrose
Oenothera villosa Thunb. ssp. villosa Hairy Evening-primrose


(Ginseng Family)

Aralia nudicaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla
Aralia racemosa L. Spikenard
Panax quinquifolius L. American Ginseng (Seen in 2008)


(Parsley Family)

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. Honewort
Daucus carota L. Queen Anne’s Lace
Hydrocotyle americana L. Water Pennywort
Osmorhiza claytoni (Michx.) C. B. Clarke Sweet Cicely
*Sium suave Walter Water Parsnip
Sanicula marilandica L. Black Snakeroot


(Dogwood Family)

Cornus alternifolia L.f. Alternate-leaved Dogwood
Cornus canadensis L. Bunchberry
Cornus rugosa Lam. Round-leaved Dogwood
Cornus stolonifera Michx. Red-osier Dogwood


(Pyrola Family)

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. Pipsissewa
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray One-flowered Wintergreen
Pyrola americana Sweet Round-leaved Pyrola
          (Pyrola rotundifolia var. americana)  
Pyrola asarifolia Michx. Pink Pyrola
Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Shinleaf


(Pinesap Family)

Monotropa hypopithys L. Pinesap
Monotropa uniflora L. Indian Pipe


(Heath Family)

Gaultheria procumbens L. Wintergreen
Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Low Blueberry


(Primrose Family)

Lysimachia ciliata L. Fringed Loosestrife
Trientalis borealis Raf. Starflower


(Olive Family)

Fraxinus americana L. White Ash
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Black Ash
Fraxinus pensylvanica Marsh. Red Ash
Syringa vulgaris L. Lilac


(Gentian Family)

Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian
Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) Ma Fringed Gentian
          (Gentiana crinita)  


(Dogbane Family)

Vinca minor  L. Periwinkle
Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Spreading Dogbane
Apocynum cannabinum L. Indian Hemp


(Milkweed Family)

Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca L. Common Milkweed
Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterfly-weed
†Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopov) Borh. Swallowwort
          (Vincetoxicum medium)


(Bindweed Family)

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. Hedge Bindweed
          (Convolvulus sepium)  
Calystegia spithamaea (L.) Pursh Low Bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis L. Field Bindweed
†Cuscuta gronovii Willd. Dodder


(Waterleaf Family)

*Hydrophyllum canadense L. Canada Waterleaf
Hydrophyllum virginiana (L.) Johnst. Virginia Waterleaf


(Borage Family)

Buglossoides arvensis  (L.) Johnst. Corn-gromwell
Cynoglossum officinale L. Hound’s Tongue
Echium vulgare L. Viper’s Bugloss
Hackelia virginiana (L.) Johnst. Virginia Stickseed
Myosotis scorpioides L. True Forget-me-not
†Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. Woodland Forget-me-not


(Vervain Family)

Phryma leptostachya L. Lopseed
Verbena hastata L. Blue Vervain
Verbena stricta Vent. Hoary Vervain
Verbena urticifolia L. White Vervain


(Mint Family)

Clinopodium vulgare L. Wild Basil
          (Satureja vulgaris)  
Galeopsis tetrahit L. Hemp Nettle
Glechoma hederacea L. Ground Ivy
Hedeoma hispida Pursh Hairy Pennyroyal
†Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit
Leonurus cardiaca L. Common Motherwort
Lycopus americanus Muhl. Cut-leaved Bugleweeed
Lycopus uniflorus Michx. Northern Bugleweed
Mentha arvensis L. Common Mint
Mentha x piperita L. Peppermint
          (M. aquatica x M. spicata)  
Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot
Nepeta cataria L. Catnip
Prunella vulgaris L. Heal-all
Scutellaria lateriflora L. Mad-dog Skullcap


(Nightshade Family)

Physalis heterophylla Nees Clammy Ground-cherry
†Solanum tuberosum L. Potato
Solanum dulcamara L. Bittersweet Nightshade
†Solanum nigrum L. (s.l.) Black Nightshade


(Figwort Family)

Chaenorrhinum minus (L.) Lange Dwarf Snapdragon
Chelone glabra L. Turtlehead
Gratiola neglecta Torr. Clammy Hedge-hyssop
Linaria vulgaris Hill Common Toadflax
Mimulus ringens L. Square-stemmed Monkeyflower
Penstemon digitalis Nutt. Fox-glove Beard-tongue
Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mullein
Veronica americana (Raf.) Schw. American Brooklime
Veronica arvensis L. Corn Speedwell
Veronica officinalis L. Common Speedwell
Veronica peregrina L. ssp. peregrina Purslane Speedwell
Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell


(Broom-rape Family)

Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. Beech-drops


(Plantain Family)

Plantago major L. Common Plantain
Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain
Plantago rugelii Decne. Rugel’s Plantain


(Madder Family)

Galium aparine L. Cleavers
Galium boreale L. Northern Bedstraw
Galium circaezans Michx. White Wild Licorice
Galium mollugo L. Wild Madder
Galium lanceolatum Torr. Yellow Wild Licorice
Galium palustre L. Marsh Bedstraw
Galium tinctorium L. Dyer’s Bedstraw
*Galium trifidum L. Small Bedstraw
Galium triflorum Michx. Fragrant Bedstraw
Galium verum L. Yellow Bedstraw
Mitchella repens L. Partridgeberry


(Honeysuckle Family)

Diervilla lonicera Mill. Northern Bush Honeysuckle
Linnaea borealis L. Twinflower
Lonicera canadensis Bartr. Canada Honeysuckle
Lonicera dioica L. Glaucous Honeysuckle
†Lonicera x bella Zabel Hybrid Honeysuckle
          (L. tatarica x L. morrowii)  
Lonicera hirsuta Eaton Hairy Honeysuckle
†Lonicera tatarica L. Tartarian Honeysuckle
Sambucus canadensis L. Common Elder
Sambucus racemosa L. Red-berried Elder
          (S. pubens)  
Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake Snowberry
Triosteum aurantiacum Bickn. Wild Coffee
Viburnum acerifolium L. Maple-leaved Viburnum
Viburnum cassinoides L. Wild Raisin
†Viburnum lantana L. Wayfaring Tree
Viburnum lantanoides Michx. Hobblebush
          (V. alnifolium)  
Viburnum lentago L. Nannyberry
†Viburnum opulus L. Guelder Rose
*Viburnum trilobum Marsh. Highbush Cranberry
          (Viburnum opulus var. americana)  


(Valerian family)

Valeriana officinalis L. Common Valerian


(Teasel Family)

Dipsacus sylvestris Hudson Teasel


(Gourd Family)

†Cucurbita sp. Domestic Gourd sp.
Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) T.& G. Wild Cucumber


(Bluebell Family)

Campanula aparinoides Pursh Marsh Bellflower
          (C. uliginosa)  
Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaf Bellflower
Campanula rapunculoides L. Common Bellflower
Lobelia inflata L. Indian Tobacco
Lobelia siphilitica L. Great Lobelia
Lobelia spicata Lam. Pale-spiked Lobelia


(Composite Family)

Achillea millefolium L. Common Yarrow
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed
Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. Pearly Everlasting
Antennaria neglecta Greene Field Pussytoes
Antennaria parlinii Fern. Plantain-leaved Pussytoes
Arctium lappa L. Greater Burdock
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Common Burdock
†Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Western Sage
†Artemisia biennis Willd. Biennial Wormwood
Aster x amethystinus Nutt. Amethyst Aster
          (A. ericoides x A. novae-angliae)  
Aster cordifolius L. Heart-leaved Aster
Aster ericoides L. Many-flowered Aster
          (Virgulus ericoides)  
Aster lanceolatus Willd. Panicled Aster
          (A. simplex)  
Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Calico Aster
Aster macrophyllus L. Large-leaved Aster
Aster novae-angliae L. New England Aster
          (Virgulus novae-angliae)  
Aster oolentangiensis Riddell Azure Aster
          (A. azureus)  
Aster pilosus Willd. Heath Aster
Aster puniceus L. Purple-stemmed Aster
Aster urophyllus Lind. Arrow-leaved Aster
Bidens cernua L. Bur-marigold
Bidens frondosa L. Beggar’s-ticks
Bidens tripartita L. (s.l.) Stick-tight
          (B. comosa, B. connata)  
Bidens vulgata Greene Tall Beggar’s-ticks
Carduus acanthoides L. Plumeless Thistle
Carduus nutans L. Nodding Thistle
Centaurea jacea L. Brown Knapweed
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eye Daisy
Cichorium intybus L. Common Chicory
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada Thistle
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore Bull Thistle
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cron. Horseweed
Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. Smooth Hawksbeard
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Daisy Fleabane
Erigeron philadelphicus L. Philadelphia Fleabane
Erigeron pulchellus Michx. Robin’s Plantain
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Rough Fleabane
Eupatorium maculatum L. Spotted Joe-Pye-Weed
Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Boneset
Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. White Snakeroot
Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Salisb. Grass-leaved Goldenrod
          (Solidago graminifolia)  
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pavon Quickweed
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Sweet Everlasting
Hieracium aurantiacum L. Orange Hawkweed
Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. Field Hawkweed
Hieracium pilosella L. Mouse-ear Hawkweed
Hieracium piloselloides Vill. King Devil
          (H. pratense) (H. florentinum)
Inula helenium L. Elecampane
Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. Tall Blue Lettuce
Lactuca canadensis L. Canada Wild Lettuce
Lactuca serriola L. Prickly Lettuce
Lapsana communis L. Nipplewort
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter Pineappleweed
Prenanthes altissima L. Tall White Lettuce
Rudbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed Susan
          (R. serotina)  
Rudbeckia triloba L. Brown-eyed Susan
Senecio aureus L. Golden Ragwort
†Senecio viscosus L. Sticky Groundsel
Senecio vulgaris L. Common Groundsel
Solidago altissima L. Tall Goldenrod
*Solidago arguta Ait. Sharp-leaved Goldenrod
Solidago caesia L. Blue-stemmed Goldenrod
Solidago canadensis L. Canada Goldenrod
Solidago flexicaulis L. Zig-zag Goldenrod
Solidago gigantea Ait. Late Goldenrod
Solidago nemoralis Ait. Gray Goldenrod
Solidago rugosa Ait. Rough-stemmed Goldenrod
Solidago uliginosa Nutt. Bog Goldenrod
Sonchus arvensis L. Field Sow Thistle
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Spiny-leaved Sow Thistle
Sonchus oleraceus L. Annual Sow-thistle
†Tanacetum vulgare L. Common Tansy
†Taraxacum erythrospermum Anderz. ex Besser Red-seeded Dandelion
Taraxacum palustre (Lyons) DC. (s.l.) Marsh Dandelion
          (T. turfosum)  
Taraxacum officinale Weber Common Dandelion
Tragopogon dubius Scop. Goat’s-beard
Tragopogon pratensis L. Yellow Goat’s-beard
Tussilago farfara L. Colt’s-foot




  • Blaney, C.S. 1999. Seed Bank Dynamics of Native and Exotic Plants in Open Uplands of Southern Ontario. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Botany, 1999.
  • Ecologistics Ltd., 1982. Environmentally Significant Areas Study. South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority. Newmarket, ON. p. 114.
  • Morton, J.K. and J.M. Venn, 1990. A Checklist of the Flora of Ontario: Vascular Plants. University of Waterloo Biology Series, Number 34. Waterloo, ON. 218 pp.
  • South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority, undated. Thornton Bales Conservation Area Master Plan. South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority. Newmarket, ON. Unpublished report, 27 pp.

Comments are closed.