KSR Plants

back to Species lists & Maps

Vascular Plants of Jokers Hill

Updated: August 11, 2020

Print friendly field version (pdf)

King Township, Regional Municipality of York

C.S. Blaney and Peter M. Kotanen*

*Correspondence author:
Department of Biology
University of Toronto, Mississauga
e-mail: peter.kotanen@utoronto.ca

The following list is based on observations and collections by the authors between 1997 and 1999, with later additions; see Blaney (1999) for details. Approximately 160 species (indicated by ) are documented by specimens which will be deposited at the Royal Ontario Museum – University of Toronto herbarium (TRT). The remainder of listed species are included on the basis of the author’s sight records, with three exceptions. S. Varga, OMNR Aurora, provided field notes from a 1983 visit to the site, which added Corallorhiza trifida and Vaccinium angustifolium to the list. R. Joos, University of Toronto Department of Botany, added Dryopteris goldiana. Marc Johnson, University of Toronto Department of Botany, provided records for several species not previously recorded. Justin Ancheta added Campanula persicifolia. Gilbert Tang added Descurainia sophia. Ivana Stehlik added Euphorbia esula. Steve Hill added Crepis capillaris. Tim Dickinson and Annabel Por added Crataegus ?succulenta, Crataegus chrysocarpa, and Crataegus submollis. We have been quite careful to include only species which have been identified with certainty, and have collected voucher specimens for all difficult identifications. Very little investigation of the flora of the site had been carried out prior to its donation to the University of Toronto. The eastern half of the property is almost entirely included by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources within the Glenville Hills Kames Earth Science Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. The Natural Heritage Information Centre at the OMNR office in Peterborough supplied two sources of botanical information on this ANSI. These were a list of 5 “rare” plant species in an environmentally significant areas study prepared for the South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority (Ecologistics 1982) and a partial list of plants found at the adjacent Thornton Bales Conservation Area (South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority undated). These reports included problematic records and did not note whether species were recorded on the Jokers Hill property. Due to these difficulties the list below was started from scratch.

The list includes all species known to be growing outside of cultivation within the Jokers Hill property. Also listed are native species found in land adjacent to the Jokers Hill property, but not yet found on the site (scientific name preceded by “*” – 13 species). A total of 638 taxa (species and hybrids) are listed; 453 taxa are considered native to Jokers Hill (those listed in bold typeface) and 185 are considered non-native (listed in regular typeface). Determining native versus non-native status required a few rather arbitrary judgements.

Several people assisted in the preparation of this list. P. Ball of the University of Toronto at Mississauga and A. Reznicek of the University of Michigan assisted with a number of difficult identifications, especially in the Cyperaceae. T. Dickinson and J. Bull of the Royal Ontario Museum identified the Crataegus specimens. Warren Wagner at the United States National Herbarium identified Oenothera biennis, Oenothera parviflora, and Oenothera villosa subsp. villosa. Peter Kotanen formatted the document for the world wide web (http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/jokershill/jhplants.html). Jarmo Jalava of the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Center compiled the pre-existing information on the site.

Taxonomy, with only a few exceptions, follows Morton and Venn (1990). Where widely used synonyms or other potentially confusing alternate binomials exist, these are listed below the species’ scientific name. As there are no standard English names for plant species, common names have been taken from a variety of sources. Although we have visited all parts of the property looking for plants, many additional species will still be found with further field work. Information on any additional species (preferably with specimens) or other comments on the list would be welcomed by the authors.

Scientific NameCommon Name
EQUISETACEAE(Horsetail Family)
Equisetum arvense L.Field Horsetail
Equisetum fluviatile L.Water Horsetail
Equisetum hyemale L.Rough Horsetail
Equisetum pratense Ehrh.Meadow Horsetail
Equisetum scirpoides Michx.Dwarf Scouring-rush
Equisetum sylvaticum L.Woodland Horsetail
Equisetum variegatum Schleich.Variegated Horsetail
LYCOPODIACEAE(Club-moss Family)
Lycopodium clavatum L.Staghorn Clubmoss
Lycopodium digitatum A. BraunRunning Ground-cedar (L. flabelliforme)
Lycopodium lucidulum Michx.Shining Clubmoss
Lycopodium obscurum L. (s.st.)Tree Clubmoss
Lycopodium tristachyumPursh Ground-cedar
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE(Grape-fern Family)
Botrychium dissectum Spreng.Dissected Grape-fern (B. obliquum)
Botrychium matricariaefolium A. Braun ex. KochChamomile Grape-fern
Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr.Leathery Grape-fern
Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.Rattlesnake Fern
OSMUNDACEAE (Flowering-fern Family)
Osmunda cinnamomea L.Cinnamon Fern
Osmunda claytoniana L.Interrupted Fern
Osmunda regalis L.Royal Fern
PTERIDACEAE(Maidenhair Fern Family)
Adiantum pedatum L.Maidenhair Fern
POLYPODIACEAE(Polypody Family)
Polypodium virginianum L.Rock Polypody
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE(Bracken-fern Family)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. MooreHay-scented Fern
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) KuhnBracken Fern
Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) WattNorthern Beech-fern
Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl.New York Fern
Thelypteris palustris (Salisb.) Schott.Marsh Fern
ASPLENIACEAE(Spleenwort Family)
Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes ex. D. EatonEbony Spleenwort
Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth.Lady Fern
Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv.Silvery Glade-fern
Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh.Bulblet Fern
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.Fragile Fern
Dryopteris x boottii (Tuckerman) Underw. Boott’s Wood-fern
Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. FuchsSpinulose Wood-fern (D. intermedia x D. cristata)
Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. GrayCrested Fern
Dryopteris goldiana (Hook.) A. GrayGoldie’s Fern
Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) A. GrayIntermediate Wood-fern (D. spinulosa var. intermedia)
Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. GrayMarginal Shield-fern
Dryopteris x triploidea WherryTriploid Wood-fern (D. intermedia x D. carthusiana)
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm.Oak Fern
Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) TodaroOstrich Fern
Onoclea sensibilis L.Sensitive Fern
Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) SchottChristmas Fern
TAXACEAE(Yew Family)
Taxus canadensis Marsh.Canada Yew
PINACEAE(Pine Family)
Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. KochTamarack
Picea glauca (Moench) VossWhite Spruce
Picea abies (L.) KarstenNorway Spruce
Picea pungens Engelm.Colorado Spruce
Pinus strobus L.White Pine
Pinus resinosa Sol. ex AitonRed Pine
Pinus banksiana Lamb.Jack Pine
Pinus sylvestris L.Scots Pine
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.Eastern Hemlock
CUPRESSACEAE(Cypress Family)
Juniperus communis L.Common Juniper
Juniperus virginiana L.Eastern Red Cedar
Thuja occidentalis L.Eastern White Cedar
TYPHACEAE(Cat-tail Family)
Typha angustifolia L.Narrow-leaved Cat-tail
Typha latifolia L.Common Cat-tail
SPARGANIACEAE(Bur-reed Family)
Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb.Green Bur-reed
Potamogeton pectinatus L.Sago Pondweed
NAJADACEAE(Naiad Family)
Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostkov & W. SchmidtFlexible Naiad
ALISMATACEAE(Water-plantain Family)
Alisma plantago-aquatica L.Water-plantain (A. triviale)
Sagittaria latifolia Willd.Common Arrowhead
POACEAE(Grass Family)
†Agrostis gigantea Roth.Redtop
Agrostis scabra Willd.Tickle Grass
(A. hyemalis) Agrostis stolonifera L.Creeping Bent Grass
Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.Short-awn Foxtail
Avena sativa L.Oats
Avena sativa L.Oats
*Brachyeletrum erectum (Schreber) Beauv.Bearded Shorthusk
Bromus ciliatus L.Fringed Brome
Bromus inermis Leyss.Awnless Brome
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.Canada Bluejoint
Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb.Drooping Woodreed
Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass
Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv.Poverty Grass
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb.Smooth Crab-grass
†Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Large Crab-grass
†Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.  Barnyard Grass
Echinochloa wiegandii (Fasset) McNeil & Dore WesternBarnyard Grass
Elymus repens (L.) GouldQuack Grass (Agropyron repens)
Elymus virginicus L.Virginia Wild Rye
Eragrostis minor HostLittle Love Grass
Festuca arundinacea Schr.            Fall Fescue (F. elatior, in part)
Festuca rubra L.Red Fescue
Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) A. Alex.Nodding Fescue (F. obtusa)
Festuca brevipila TraceySheep Fescue (F. trachyphylla, F. ovina)
Glyceria grandis S. Wats. Tall Manna-grass
Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.Fowl Manna-grass
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw.Rice Cut -grass
Lolium perenne L.Rye Grass
Milium effusum L.Wild Millet
Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.Mexican Muhly-grass
Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Rough-leaved Mountain-rice
Panicum acuminatum Sw.Tufted Panic-grass (P. lanuginosum, Dichanthelium acuminatum)
Panicum capillare L.Common Witch Grass
Panicum depauperatum Muhl.Depauperate Panic-grass
Panicum linearifolium Scrib.Linear-leaved Panic-grass
Phalaris arundinacea L.Reed Canary Grass
Phleum pratense L.Timothy
Phragmites austalisCommon Reed-grass (P. communis)
Poa annua L.Annual Bluegrass
Poa compressa L.Canada Bluegrass
Poa palustris L.Swamp Bluegrass
Poa pratensis L.Kentucky Bluegrass
Poa alsodes L.Woodland Bluegrass
Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen. False Melic Grass
†Setaria pumila (Poiret) SchultesWhite Foxtail (S. glauca)
†Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.Green Foxtail
Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb.Slender Wedge Grass
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. GraySand Dropseed
Sporobolus neglectus NashOverlooked Dropseed
Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Torr.Ensheathed Dropseed
CYPERACEAE (Sedge Family)
Carex albursina E. SheldonBroad-leaved
Sedge Carex aquatilis Wahl.Aquatic Sedge
Carex arctata BoottCompressed Sedge
Carex aurea Nutt.Golden-fruited Sedge
*Carex backii BoottBack’s Sedge
Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern.Bebb’s Sedge
Carex blanda Dewey White Sedge
Carex cephalophora Muhl.One-headed Sedge
Carex communis BaileyCommon Sedge
Carex cristatella Britt.Crested Sedge
Carex deweyana Schwein.Dewey’s Sedge
Carex disperma DeweyTwo-seeded Sedge
Carex flava L.Yellow Sedge
Carex gracillima Schwein. Filiform Sedge
Carex granularis Muhl.Granular Sedge
*Carex hirtifolia Mack.Hairy-leaved Sedge
Carex hitchcockiana DeweyHitchcock’s Sedge
Carex hystericina Muhl.Porcupine Sedge
Carex interior BaileyInterior Sedge
*Carex intumescens Rudge Bladder Sedge
Carex laevivaginata (Kuk.) Mack.Smooth-sheathed Sedge
Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh.Slender Sedge
Carex laxiflora Lam.Loose-flowered Sedge
Carex leptalea Wahl.Bristle-stalked Sedge
Carex leptonervia (Fern.) Fern.Finely-nerved Sedge
Carex lupulina Muhlenb. ex Willd.Common Hop Sedge
Carex muhlenbergii Schk.Muhlenberg’s Sedge
Carex peckii HowePeck’s Sedge
Carex pedunculata Muhl.Peduncled Sedge
Carex pensylvanica Lam.Pennsylvania Sedge
Carex plantaginea Lam.Plantain-leaved Sedge
Carex platyphylla J. CareyBroad-leaved Sedge
*Carex projecta Mack.Necklace Sedge
Carex pseudo-cyperus L. False-cyperus Sedge
Carex radiata (Wahl.) SmallRadiate Sedge
Carex retrorsa Schwein.Backward Sedge
Carex rosea Schk.Rose Sedge (C. convoluta)
Carex rugosperma Mack.Rough-seeded Sedge
Carex scabrata Schwein.Rough Sedge
Carex schweinitzii x utriculata Boott Dewey ex Schwein.Hybrid
Carex sparganioides Willd. Bur-reed Sedge
†Carex spicata HudsonSpiked Sedge
Carex sprengellii DeweySprengel’s Sedge
Carex stipata Muhl.Crowded Sedge
Carex vulpinoidea Michx.Foxtail Sedge
Cyperus bipartitus TorreyRiver Cyperus (C. rivularis)
Cyperus lupulinus (Sprengel) Marcks Cyperus (C. filiculmis)
Eleocharis erythropoda Steud.Red-foot Spikerush
Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) SchultesBlunt Spikerush
Scirpus atrovirens Willd.Blackish Bulrush
Scirpus cyperinus (L.) KunthWool-grass
Scirpus microcarpus Presl.Red-sheathed Bulrush (S. rubrotinctus)
Scirpus validus L. (s.st.)Soft-stem Bulrush
ARACEAE(Arum Family)
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) SchottJack-in-the-Pulpit
LEMNACEAE(Duckweed Family)
Lemna minor L.Lesser Duckweed
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.Greater Duckweed
Wolffia columbiana Karst.Water-meal
JUNCACEAE (Rush Family)
Juncus articulatus L.Jointed Rush
Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern.Short-tailed Rush
†Juncus compressus Jacq.Compressed Rush
Juncus bufonius L.Toad Rush
Juncus dudleyi Wieg.Dudley’s Rush
Juncus effusus L.Soft-stem Rush
Juncus nodosus L.Knotted Rush
Juncus tenuis Willd.Slender Rush
Juncus torreyi Cov.Torrey’s Rush
LILIACEAE(Lily Family)
Allium tricoccum Ait.Wild Leek
Asparagus officinalis L.Asparagus
Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf.Bluebead Lily
Erythronium americanum Ker GawlerYellow Trout-lily
Hemerocallis fulva L.Day Lily
Maianthemum canadense Desf.Canada Mayflower
Maianthemum racemosa (L.) LinkFalse Solomon’s-seal (Smilacina racemosa)
Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link           Starry False Solomon’s-seal (Smilacina stellata)
Medeola virginiana L.Indian Cucumber-root
Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) PurshHairy Solomon’s-seal
Smilax herbacea L.Carrion Flower
Smilax hispida Torr.Bristly Greenbrier
Streptopus roseus Michx.Rose Twisted-stalk
Trillium erectum L.Red Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.White Trillium
Uvularia grandiflora Sm.Large-flowered Bellwort
IRIDACEAE(Iris Family)
Iris versicolor L.Blue Flag
Sisyrinchium montanum GreeneBlue-eyed Grass
ORCHIDACEAE(Orchid Family)
*Corallorhiza cf. maculata (Raf.) Raf.Spotted Coralroot
Corallorhiza trifida Chat.Early Coralroot
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb.Yellow Lady’s-slipper (C. pubescens, C. parviflorum)
Cypripedium reginae WalterShowy Lady’s-slipper
Epipactis helleborine (L.) CrantzHelleborine
Galearis spectabilis (L.) Raf. Showy Orchis
Liparis loeselii (L.) RichardLoesel’s Twayblade
*Malaxis monopyllos (L.) SwallenWhite Adder’s-mouth
Platanthera hyperborea (L.) LindleyNorthern Green Orchid
Spiranthes cernua (L.) RichNodding Ladies’-tresses
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE(Dutchman’s-pipe Family)
Asarum canadense L.Wild Ginger
SALICACEAE(Willow Family)
Populus balsamifera L.Balsam Poplar
Populus grandidentata Michx.Large-toothed Aspen
Populus tremuloides Michx.Trembling Aspen
Salix amygdaloides Anderss.Peach-leaved Willow
Salix bebbiana Sarg.Beaked Willow
Salix discolor Muhl.  Pussy Willow
Salix exigua Nutt.Sandbar Willow
Salix eriocephala Michx.Stiff Willow
†Salix cf. x rubens SchrankHybrid Willow (S. fragilis x S. alba)
Salix lucida Muhl.Shining Willow
Salix petiolaris SmithSlender Willow
Salix serissima (L. Bailey) Fern.Autumn Willow  
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. KochBitternut Hickory
Juglans cinerea L.Butternut
Juglans nigra L.Black Walnut
BETULACEAE(Birch Family)
Betula alleghaniensis BrittonYellow Birch
Betula papyrifera Marsh.White Birch
Carpinus caroliniana WaltBlue Beech
Corylus cornuta Marsh.Beaked Hazel
Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. KochHop Hornbeam
FAGACEAE(Beech Family)
Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.American Beech
Quercus alba L.White Oak
Quercus macrocarpa Michx.Bur Oak
Quercus rubra L.Red Oak
ULMACEAE(Elm Family)
Ulmus americana L.American Elm
URTICACEAE(Nettle Family)
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.False Nettle
Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd.Wood Nettle
Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb.Dark-seeded Clearweed
Pilea pumila (L.) A. GrayClearweed
Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis Ait.Tall Nettle
POLYGONACEAE(Buckwheat Family)
Polygonum achoreum BlakeHomeless Knotweed
Polygonum aviculare L.Prostrate Knotweed
Polygonum convolvulus L.Black Bindweed
†Polygonum hydropiper L.Water Pepper
Polygonum lapathifolium L.Nodding Smartweed
Polygonum persicaria L.Lady’s-thumb
Rumex acetosella L.Sheep Sorrel
Rumex crispus L.Curled Dock
Rumex obtusifolius L.Bitter Dock
Rumex orbiculatus GrayGreat Water Dock
CHENOPODIACEAE(Goosefoot Family)
Atriplex patula L.Spearscale
Chenopodium album L.Lamb’s Quarters
†Chenopodium glaucum L.Oak-leaved Goosefoot
†Chenopodium rubrum L.Coast Blite
Chenopodium simplex (Torrey) Raf.Maple-leaved Goosefoot
AMARANTHACEAE(Amaranth Family)
†Amaranthus albus L.Tumbleweed
Amaranthus retroflexus L.Redroot Pigweed
PORTULACEAE(Purslane Family)
Claytonia caroliniana Michx.Wide-leaved Spring Beauty
Portulaca oleracea L.Purslane
Arenaria serpyllifolia L.Thyme-leaved Sandwort
Cerastium fontanum Baumg.Mouse-ear Chickweed (C. vulgatum)
Dianthus armeria L.Deptford Pink
Saponaria officinalis L.Bouncing Bet
Silene antirrhina L.Sleepy Catchfly
Silene latifolia PoiretWhite Campion (S. alba, Lychnis alba)  
Silene noctiflora L. Night-flowering Catchfly
Silene vulgaris (Moench) GarckeBladder Campion
†Stellaria graminea L.Grass-leaved Stitchwort
Stellaria longifolia Willd.Long-leaved Stitchwort
Stellaria media (L.) CyrilloCommon Chickweed
RANUNCULACEAE(Crowfoot Family)
Actaea pachypoda (L.) Mill.White Baneberry
Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd.Red Baneberry
Actaea x ludovici BoivinHybrid Baneberry (A. pachypoda x A. rubra)
Anemone cylindrica A. GrayLong-fruited Anemone
Anemone virginiana L.Thimbleweed
Aquilegia canadensis L.Wild Columbine
†Aquilegia vulgaris L.Garden Columbine
Caltha palustris L.Marsh Marigold
Clematis virginiana L. Virgin’s Bower
Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.Goldthread
Hepatica acutiloba DC.Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Ranunculus abortivus L.Kidney-leaved Buttercup
Ranunculus acris L.Common Buttercup
Ranunculus recurvatus PoiretHooked Buttercup
Ranunculus sceleratus L.Cursed Buttercup
Thalictrum dioicum L.Early Meadow Rue
Thalictrum pubescens PurshTall Meadow-rue
BERBERIDACEAE(Barberry Family)
Berberis thunbergii DC.Japanese Barberry
Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.Blue Cohosh
Podophyllum peltatum L.May-apple
Chelidonium majus L.Celandine
Sanguinaria canadensis L.Bloodroot
FUMARIACEAE(Corydalis Family)
Dicentra canadensis (L.) Bernh.Squirrel Corn
CAPPARACEAE  (Caper Family)
†Cleome hassleriana ChodatSpider Flower (C. spinosa)
BRASSICACEAE(Mustard Family)
Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cav. & Gr.Garlic Mustard (A. officinalis)
Alyssum alysoides (L.) L.Yellow Alyssum
Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh.Smooth Rock-cress
Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.Yellow Rocket
†Camelina microcarpa Andrz.Small-seeded False-flax
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.Shepherd’s Purse
Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. WoodToothwort (Dentaria diphylla)
†Cardamine hirsuta L.Hairy Bitter-cress
Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl.Pennsylvania Bitter-cress
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Herb Sophia
Erophila verna (L.) Bess.  Spring Whitlow-grass (Draba verna)
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Wormseed Mustard
Hesperis matronalis L. Dame’s Rocket
Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br. Field Pepper-grass
Lepidium densiflorum Schrad.Dense-flower Pepper-grass
Nasturtium officinale R. Br Water-cress
Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser ssp. hispida (Desv.) JonsellMarsh Yellow-cress
Sinapis arvensis L.Charlock (Brassica kaber)
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.Hedge Mustard
Thlaspi arvense L.Field Penny-cress
Sedum acre L.Mossy Stonecrop
Sedum telephium L.Live-forever
SAXIFRAGACEAE(Saxifrage Family)
Chrysosplenium americanum HookerGolden Saxifrage
Mitella diphylla L.Bishop’s-cap Mitrewort
Mitella nuda L.Naked Mitrewort
Tiarella cordifolia L.Foamflower
GROSSULARIACEAE(Gooseberry Family)
†Ribes alpinum L.Alpine Currant
Ribes americanum Mill.Wild Black Currant
Ribes cynosbati L.Prickly Gooseberry
Ribes hirtellum Michx.Hairy Gooseberry
*Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir.Bristly Black Currant
Ribes rubrum L.European Red Currant
Ribes triste PallasSwamp Red Currant
HAMAMELIDACEAE(Witch-hazel Family)
Hamamelis virginiana L.Witch-hazel
ROSACEAE(Rose Family)
Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.Hooked Agrimony
Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern.Canada Serviceberry
Amelanchier interior NielsonInterior Serviceberry
Amelanchier laevis Wieg.Smooth Serviceberry
Crataegus chrysocarpa AsheFireberry Hawthorn
Crataegus sect. CoccineaeHawthorn sp. – section Coccineae
Crataegus macracantha Lodd.Large-thorned Hawthorn (C. succulenta var. macracantha)
Crataegus monogyna Jacq.English Hawthorn
Crataegus punctata Jacq.Dotted Hawthorn
Crataegus submollis Sarg.Quebec Hawthorn
Crataegus ?succulenta Schrad. ex LinkFleshy Hawthorn
Fragaria vesca L.Woodland Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana DechesneWild Strawberry
Geum aleppicum Jacq. Yellow Avens
Geum canadense Jacq.White Avens
Geum laciniatum Murr.Slashed Avens
Geum rivale L.Water Avens
Geum urbanum L.Clover-root
Malus pumila MillerApple (Pyrus malus)
Potentilla arguta Pursh Tall Cinquefoil
Potentilla norvegica L.Rough Cinquefoil
Potentilla recta L.Sulphur Cinquefoil
Prunus nigra Ait.Canada Plum
Prunus pensylvanica L.f.Pin Cherry
Prunus serotina Ehrh.Black Cherry
Prunus virginiana L. Choke Cherry
Pyrus communis L.Pear
Rosa blanda Ait.Smooth Wild Rose
Rosa carolina L.Pasture Rose
Rosa multiflora Thunb.Multiflora Rose
Rubus allegheniensis PorterCommon Blackberry
Rubus idaeus var. strigosus L.Red Raspberry (R. strigosus)
Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry
Rubus odoratus L.Purple-flowering Raspberry
Rubus pubescens Raf.Dwarf Raspberry
Sorbus aucuparia L.European Mountain-ash
Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt.Barren Strawberry
FABACEAE(Bean Family)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern.Hog-peanut
Desmodium canadense (L.) DC.Showy Tick Trefoil
Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl.) WoodGlutinous Tick-trefoil
Gleditsia triacanthos L.Honey Locust
Lotus corniculatus L.Bird’s-foot Trefoil
Medicago lupulina L. Black Medick
Medicago sativa L.Alfalfa
Melilotus alba MedikusWhite Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis (L.) PallasYellow Sweet Clover
Robinia pseudo-acacia L.Black Locust
Trifolium campestre Schr.Pinnate-leaved Hop Clover (T. procumbens)
Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover
Trifolium pratense L.Red Clover
Trifolium repens L.White Clover
Vicia cracca L.Cow Vetch
Vicia sativa L.Spring Vetch
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) MoenchSparrow Vetch
OXALIDACEAE(Wood Sorrel Family)
Oxalis acetosella L.Wood Sorrel
Oxalis stricta L.Yellow Sorrel (O. fontana, O. europaea)
GERANIACEAE(Geranium Family)
Geranium robertianum L.Herb Robert
Acalypha virginica Raf.Three-seeded Mercury (A. rhomboidea)
†Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) SmallEngraved Spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) SmallSpotted Spurge (Euphorbia supina, E. maculata)
Euphorbia cyparissias L.Cypress Spurge
Euphorbia esula L.Leafy Spurge
POLYGALACEAE(Polygala Family)
Polygala paucifolia Willd.Fringed Polygala
Rhus radicans L.Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
Rhus typhina L.Staghorn Sumac
CELASTRACEAE(Bittersweet Family)
Celastrus scandens L.Bittersweet
†Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) SieboldWinged Euonymus
ACERACEAE(Maple Family)
†Acer ginnala Maxim.Amur Maple
Acer negundo L.Manitoba Maple
*Acer nigrum Michx. f.Black Maple
Acer platanoides L.Norway Maple
Acer rubrum L.Red Maple
Acer saccharinum L.Silver Maple
Acer saccharum Marsh.Sugar Maple
Acer spicatum Lam.Mountain Maple
BALSAMINACEAE(Touch-Me-Not Family)
Impatiens capensis Meerb.Spotted Touch-Me-Not
RHAMNACEAE(Buckhorn Family)
Rhamnus cathartica L.Common Buckthorn
VITACEAE(Vine Family)
Parthenocissus inserta (Kerner) Fritsch Virginia Creeper (P. vitacea)
Vitis riparia Michx.Wild Grape
TILIACEAE(Linden Family)
Tilia americana L.Basswood
†Tilia cordata Mill.Little-leaf Linden
MALVACEAE(Mallow Family)
Malva neglecta Wallr.Common Mallow
CLUSIACEAE(St. Johnswort Family)
Hypericum perforatum L.Common St. Johnswort
Hypericum punctatum Lam.Dotted St. Johnswort    
CISTACEAE(Rock-rose Family)
Lechea intermedia Britt.Intermediate Pinweed
VIOLACEAE(Violet Family)
Viola arvensis MurraySmall Wild Pansy
Viola blanda Willd.Sweet White Violet
Viola canadensis L.Canada Violet
Viola conspersa Reich.Dog Violet
Viola cucullata Ait.Marsh Blue Violet
Viola mackloskeyi F. LloydNorthern White Violet
Viola pubescens Ait. Downy Yellow Violet (incl. V. pensylvanica, V. eriocarpa)
Viola renifolia GrayKidney-leaved Violet
Viola rostrata PurshLong-spurred Violet
Viola selkirkii PurshSelkirk’s Violet
Viola sororia Willd. (s.l.)Wooly Blue Violet
THYMELAEACEAE(Mezereum Family)
Dirca palustris L.Leatherwood
LYTHRACEAE(Loosestrife Family)
Lythrum salicaria L.Purple Loosestrife
ONAGRACEAE(Evening Primrose Family)
Circaea alpina L.Small Enchanter’s-nightshade
Circaea lutetiana L.Tall Enchanter’s-nightshade (C. quadrisulcata)
Epilobium ciliatum Raf.Northern Willow-herb (incl. E. adenocaulon, E. glandulosum)
†Epilobium hirsutum L.Hairy Willowherb
Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. Narrow-leaved Willowherb
Epilobium parviflorum SchreberSmall-flowered Willowherb
Epilobium strictum Spreng.Downy Willowherb
Oenothera biennis L.Evening-primrose
Oenothera parviflora L.Northern Evening-primrose
Oenothera perennis L.Perennial Evening-primrose
Oenothera villosa Thunb. ssp. villosaHairy Evening-primrose
ARALIACEAE(Ginseng Family)
Aralia nudicaulis L.Wild Sarsaparilla
Aralia racemosa L.Spikenard
Panax quinquifolius L.American Ginseng (Seen in 2008)
APIACEAE(Parsley Family)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.Honewort
Daucus carota L.Queen Anne’s Lace
Hydrocotyle americana L.Water Pennywort
Osmorhiza claytoni (Michx.) C. B. ClarkeSweet Cicely
*Sium suave WalterWater Parsnip
Sanicula marilandica L.Black Snakeroot
CORNACEAE(Dogwood Family)
Cornus alternifolia L.f.Alternate-leaved Dogwood
Cornus canadensis L.Bunchberry
Cornus rugosa Lam.Round-leaved Dogwood
Cornus stolonifera Michx.Red-osier Dogwood
PYROLACEAE(Pyrola Family)
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart.Pipsissewa
Moneses uniflora (L.) GrayOne-flowered Wintergreen
Pyrola americana SweetRound-leaved Pyrola (Pyrola rotundifolia var. americana)
Pyrola asarifolia Michx.Pink Pyrola
Pyrola elliptica Nutt.Shinleaf
Monotropa hypopithys L.Pinesap
Monotropa uniflora L.Indian Pipe
ERICACEAE(Heath Family)
Gaultheria procumbens L.Wintergreen
Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.Low Blueberry
PRIMULACEAE(Primrose Family)
Lysimachia ciliata L.Fringed Loosestrife
Trientalis borealis Raf.Starflower
OLEACEAE(Olive Family)
Fraxinus americana L. White Ash
Fraxinus nigra Marsh.Black Ash
Fraxinus pensylvanica Marsh.Red Ash
Ligustrum vulgareCommon Privet
Syringa vulgaris L.Lilac
GENTIANACEAE(Gentian Family)
Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.Closed Gentian
Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) MaFringed Gentian (Gentiana crinita)
APOCYNACEAE(Dogbane Family)
Vinca minor  L.Periwinkle
Apocynum androsaemifolium L.Spreading Dogbane
Apocynum cannabinum L.Indian Hemp
Asclepias incarnata L.Swamp Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca L.Common Milkweed
Asclepias tuberosa L.Butterfly-weed
†Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopov) Borh.Swallowwort (Vincetoxicum medium)  
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.Hedge Bindweed (Convolvulus sepium)
Calystegia spithamaea (L.) PurshLow Bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis L.Field Bindweed
†Cuscuta gronovii Willd.Dodder
*Hydrophyllum canadense L.Canada Waterleaf
Hydrophyllum virginiana (L.) Johnst.Virginia Waterleaf
Buglossoides arvensis  (L.) Johnst.Corn-gromwell
Cynoglossum officinale L.Hound’s Tongue
Echium vulgare L.Viper’s Bugloss
Hackelia virginiana (L.) Johnst.Virginia Stickseed
Myosotis scorpioides L.True Forget-me-not
†Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm.Woodland Forget-me-not
VERBENACEAE(Vervain Family)
Phryma leptostachya L.Lopseed
Verbena hastata L.Blue Vervain
Verbena stricta Vent.Hoary Vervain
Verbena urticifolia L.White Vervain
LAMIACEAE(Mint Family)
Clinopodium vulgare L.Wild Basil (Satureja vulgaris)
Galeopsis tetrahit L.Hemp Nettle
Glechoma hederacea L.Ground Ivy
Hedeoma hispida PurshHairy Pennyroyal
†Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit
Leonurus cardiaca L.Common Motherwort
Lycopus americanus Muhl.Cut-leaved Bugleweeed
Lycopus uniflorus Michx.Northern Bugleweed
Mentha arvensis L.Common Mint
Mentha x piperita L. Peppermint (M. aquatica x M. spicata)
Monarda fistulosa L.Wild Bergamot
Nepeta cataria L.Catnip
Prunella vulgaris L.Heal-all
Scutellaria lateriflora L.Mad-dog Skullcap
SOLANACEAE(Nightshade Family)
Physalis heterophylla NeesClammy Ground-cherry
†Solanum tuberosum L.Potato
Solanum dulcamara L.Bittersweet Nightshade
†Solanum nigrum L. (s.l.)Black Nightshade
Chaenorrhinum minus (L.) LangeDwarf Snapdragon
Chelone glabra L.Turtlehead
Gratiola neglecta Torr.Clammy Hedge-hyssop
Linaria vulgaris HillCommon Toadflax
Mimulus ringens L.Square-stemmed Monkeyflower
Penstemon digitalis Nutt.Fox-glove Beard-tongue
Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mullein
Veronica americana (Raf.) Schw.American Brooklime
Veronica arvensis L.Corn Speedwell
Veronica officinalis L.Common Speedwell
Veronica peregrina L. ssp. peregrinaPurslane Speedwell
Veronica serpyllifolia L.Thyme-leaved Speedwell
OROBANCHACEAE(Broom-rape Family)
Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart.Beech-drops
Plantago major L.Common Plantain
Plantago lanceolata L.English Plantain
Plantago rugelii Decne.Rugel’s Plantain
RUBIACEAE(Madder Family)
Galium aparine L.Cleavers
Galium boreale L.Northern Bedstraw
Galium circaezans Michx.White Wild Licorice
Galium mollugo L.Wild Madder
Galium lanceolatum Torr.Yellow Wild Licorice
Galium palustre L. Marsh Bedstraw
Galium tinctorium L.Dyer’s Bedstraw
*Galium trifidum L.Small Bedstraw
Galium triflorum Michx.Fragrant Bedstraw
Galium verum L.Yellow Bedstraw
Mitchella repens L.Partridgeberry
CAPRIFOLIACEAE(Honeysuckle Family)
Diervilla lonicera Mill.Northern Bush Honeysuckle
Linnaea borealis L.Twinflower
Lonicera canadensis Bartr.Canada Honeysuckle
Lonicera dioica L.Glaucous Honeysuckle
†Lonicera x bella ZabelHybrid Honeysuckle (L. tatarica x L. morrowii)
Lonicera hirsuta Eaton Hairy Honeysuckle
†Lonicera tatarica L.Tartarian Honeysuckle
Sambucus canadensis L.Common Elder
Sambucus racemosa L.Red-berried Elder (S. pubens)
Symphoricarpos albus (L.) BlakeSnowberry
Triosteum aurantiacum Bickn.Wild Coffee
Viburnum acerifolium L.Maple-leaved Viburnum
Viburnum cassinoides L. Wild Raisin
†Viburnum lantana L.Wayfaring Tree
Viburnum lantanoides Michx.Hobblebush (V. alnifolium)
Viburnum lentago L.Nannyberry
†Viburnum opulus L.Guelder Rose
*Viburnum trilobum Marsh.Highbush Cranberry (Viburnum opulus var. americana)
ALERIANACEAE (Valerian family)
Valeriana officinalis L.Common Valerian
DIPSACACEAE(Teasel Family)
Dipsacus sylvestris HudsonTeasel
†Cucurbita sp.Domestic Gourd sp.
Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) T.& G.Wild Cucumber
CAMPANULACEAE(Bluebell Family)
Campanula aparinoides PurshMarsh Bellflower (C. uliginosa)
Campanula persicifoliaPeach-leaf Bellflower
Campanula rapunculoides L.Common Bellflower
Lobelia inflata L.Indian Tobacco
Lobelia siphilitica L.Great Lobelia
Lobelia spicata Lam.Pale-spiked Lobelia
ASTERACEAE(Composite Family)
Achillea millefolium L.Common Yarrow
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.Common Ragweed
Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.Pearly Everlasting
Antennaria neglecta GreeneField Pussytoes
Antennaria parlinii Fern.Plantain-leaved Pussytoes
Arctium lappa L. Greater Burdock
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.Common Burdock
†Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.Western Sage
†Artemisia biennis Willd.Biennial Wormwood
Aster x amethystinus Nutt.Amethyst Aster (A. ericoides x A. novae-angliae)
Aster cordifolius L. Heart-leaved Aster
Aster ericoides L.Many-flowered Aster (Virgulus ericoides)
Aster lanceolatus Willd.Panicled Aster (A. simplex)
Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt.Calico Aster
Aster macrophyllus L.Large-leaved Aster
Aster novae-angliae L. New England Aster (Virgulus novae-angliae)
Aster oolentangiensis RiddellAzure Aster (A. azureus)
Aster pilosus Willd.Heath Aster
Aster puniceus L.Purple-stemmed Aster
Aster urophyllus Lind.Arrow-leaved Aster
Bidens cernua L. Bur-marigold
Bidens frondosa L.Beggar’s-ticks
Bidens tripartita L. (s.l.)Stick-tight (B. comosa, B. connata)
Bidens vulgata GreeneTall Beggar’s-ticks
Carduus acanthoides L.Plumeless Thistle
Carduus nutans L. Nodding Thistle
Centaurea jacea L.Brown Knapweed
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.Ox-eye Daisy
Cichorium intybus L.Common Chicory
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.Canada Thistle
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) TenoreBull Thistle
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cron. Horseweed
Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr.Smooth Hawksbeard
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.Daisy Fleabane
Erigeron philadelphicus L.Philadelphia Fleabane
Erigeron pulchellus Michx.Robin’s Plantain
Erigeron strigosus Muhl.Rough Fleabane
Eupatorium maculatum L. Spotted Joe-Pye-Weed
Eupatorium perfoliatum L.Boneset
Eupatorium rugosum Houtt.White Snakeroot
Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Salisb.Grass-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago graminifolia)
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & PavonQuickweed
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.Sweet Everlasting
Hieracium aurantiacum L. Orange Hawkweed
Hieracium caespitosum Dumort.Field Hawkweed (H. pratense)
Hieracium pilosella L.Mouse-ear Hawkweed
Hieracium piloselloides Vill.King Devil (H. florentinum)
Inula helenium L.Elecampane
Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. Tall Blue Lettuce
Lactuca canadensis L.Canada Wild Lettuce
Lactuca serriola L.Prickly Lettuce
Lapsana communis L.Nipplewort
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) PorterPineappleweed
Prenanthes altissima L.Tall White Lettuce
Rudbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed Susan (R. serotina)
Rudbeckia triloba L.Brown-eyed Susan
Senecio aureus L.Golden Ragwort
†Senecio viscosus L.Sticky Groundsel
Senecio vulgaris L.Common Groundsel
Solidago altissima L.Tall Goldenrod
*Solidago arguta Ait. Sharp-leaved Goldenrod
Solidago caesia L.Blue-stemmed Goldenrod
Solidago canadensis L.Canada Goldenrod
Solidago flexicaulis L.Zig-zag Goldenrod
Solidago gigantea Ait.Late Goldenrod
Solidago nemoralis Ait.Gray Goldenrod
Solidago rugosa Ait. Rough-stemmed Goldenrod
Solidago uliginosa Nutt.Bog Goldenrod
Sonchus arvensis L.Field Sow Thistle
Sonchus asper (L.) HillSpiny-leaved Sow Thistle
Sonchus oleraceus L.Annual Sow-thistle
†Tanacetum vulgare L.Common Tansy
†Taraxacum erythrospermum Anderz. ex Besser Red-seeded Dandelion
Taraxacum palustre (Lyons) DC. (s.l.)Marsh Dandelion (T. turfosum)
Taraxacum officinale WeberCommon Dandelion
Tragopogon dubius Scop.Goat’s-beard
Tragopogon pratensis L.Yellow Goat’s-beard
Tussilago farfara L.Colt’s-foot


  • Blaney, C.S. 1999. Seed Bank Dynamics of Native and Exotic Plants in Open Uplands of Southern Ontario. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Botany, 1999.
  • Ecologistics Ltd., 1982. Environmentally Significant Areas Study. South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority. Newmarket, ON. p. 114.
  • Morton, J.K. and J.M. Venn, 1990. A Checklist of the Flora of Ontario: Vascular Plants. University of Waterloo Biology Series, Number 34. Waterloo, ON. 218 pp.
  • South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority, undated. Thornton Bales Conservation Area Master Plan. South Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority. Newmarket, ON. Unpublished report, 27 pp.

Comments are closed.