KSR Birds

Birds of Jokers Hill

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LAST UPDATE:   17 December 2014



King Township, Regional Municipality of York

  1. S. Blaney and P.M. Kotanen*


*Correspondence author:
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
University of Toronto at Mississauga
e-mail: peter.kotanen@utoronto.ca 

This list is a compilation of the 1997-2014 observations of the authors and numerous observers (including W. Kilburn, R. Joos, M. Johnson, K. Shackleton, S. Varga, and J. Jensen), as well as the observations of W. Fox from 1971 to 1998, with some later additions. Red-bellied Woodpecker, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and Yellow-breasted Chat were added in 2014 by an on-site banding program. See Blaney 1999 (Seed Bank Dynamics of Native and Exotic Plants in Open Uplands of Southern Ontario: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Botany) for the original version of this list and additional details. All 163 species on the main list were observed from within the Jokers Hill property boundaries. As this work was secondary to our main research only a low percentage of the species actually breeding on the site were recorded in the confirmed category. Almost all species in the possible (PO) and probable (P) breeding categories likely do breed on the site. Status codes are as follows:


O – Observed without evidence of breeding

M – observed only as a migrant or winter resident

X – observed during the species’ breeding season without evidence of breeding

PO – breeding possible

SH – observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

SM – singing male observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

P – breeding probable

P -pair observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

T – singing male observed in the same area on visits separated by at least two weeks

A – agitated behaviour

D – breeding display or intraspecies hostility

N – nest building

CO – breeding confirmed

AE – adult entering presumed nest site

DD – distraction display

NU – used nest

FS – adult carrying food or faecal sac

NE- nest with eggs

NY – nest with young

FY – flightless or dependent young


Common Loon Gavia immer (Brunnich) O-M
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus) O-M
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) O-M
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Linnaeus O-X
Green Heron Butorides striatus (Linnaeus) O-X
Canada Goose Branta canadensis (Linnaeus) P-P
Wood Duck Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) P-P
Green-winged Teal Anas crecca Linnaeus O-M
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus CO-FY
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Linnaeus O-M
Redhead Aythya americana (Eyton) O-M
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris (Donovan) O-M
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus) O-M
Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus) O-M
Common Merganser Mergus merganser Linnaeus O-M
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura (Linnaeus) O-X
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus) O-X
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus Vieillot PO-SH
Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) CO-FS
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus) O-X
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus (Vieillot) P-T
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus (Gmelin) CO-NY
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin) P-A
Osprey Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus O-M
American Kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus PO-SH
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus) O-M
Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellatus (Linnaeus) CO-FY
Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus CO-FY
American Coot Fulica americana Gmelin O-M
Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis (Linnaeus) O-M
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus P-T
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria Wilson O-M
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia (Linnaeus) PO-SH
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus) P-T
American Woodcock Scolopax minor Gmelin CO-FY
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis Ord O-X
Herring Gull Larus argenteus Pontoppidan O-X
Caspian Tern Sterna caspia Pallas O-X
Rock Dove Columba livia Gmelin CO-AE
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus) P-T
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus) PO-SM
Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Linnaeus) P-T
Eastern Screech-Owl Otus asio (Linnaeus) P-T
Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus Gmelin P-T
Barred Owl Strix varia Barton P-T
Great Gray Owl Strix nebulosa Forster O-M
Snowy Owl Nyctaea scandiaca (Linnaeus) O-M
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor (Forster) O-X
Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson PO-SM
Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus) CO-NE
Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon(Linnaeus) O-X
Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus) PO-SH
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus) P-N
Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens (Linnaeus) P-P
Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus (Linnaeus) CO-NY
Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) CO-FY
Pileated Woodpecker Drycopus pileatus (Linnaeus) P-T
Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus borealis (Swainson) O-M
Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens (Linnaeus) P-D
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris (Baird and Baird) O-M
Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum Brewster P-T
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus (Baird and Baird) P-T
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe (Latham) P-P
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus) P-D
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus) P-T
Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor (Linnaeus) O-M
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus) PO-SM
Purple Martin Progne subis (Linnaeus) O-X
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot) P-T
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon) O-X
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia (Linnaeus) O-X
Cliff Swallow Hirundo pyrronota Vieillot O-X
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Linnaeus CO-NY
Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus) P-P
American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm CO-FY
Common Raven Corvus corax Linnaeus O-M
Black-capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus Linnaeus CO-FY
Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis Linnaeus CO-FY
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis Latham P-T
Brown Creeper Certhia americana Bonaparte P-T
House Wren Troglodytes aedon Vieillot CO-FY
Winter Wren Troglodytes trodglodytes (Linnaeus) P-T
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis (Latham) PO-SM
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein P-T
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula (Linnaeus) O-M
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis (Linnaeus) P-P
Veery Catharus fuscescens (Stephens) P-T
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus (Pallas) O-M
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin) P-T
American Robin Turdus migratorius Linnaeus CO-NE
Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus) P-T
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus) PO-SM
American Pipit Anthus rubescens (Tunstall) O-M
Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot P-P
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus) O-M
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus CO-NY
Solitary Vireo Vireo solitarius (Wilson) P-T
Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus (Vieillot) P-T
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus (Gmelin) O-M
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) P-T
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) CO-FS
Golden-winged Warbler1 Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus) CO-FS
“Brewster’s Warbler”1 Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus) CO-FS
xVermivora pinus (Linnaeus)
Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina (Wilson) O-M
Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata (Say) O-M
Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson) P-N
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia (Linnaeus) P-P
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica (Linnaeus) PO-SM
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia (Wilson) P-T
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin) O-M
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus) P-T
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens (Gmelin) P-T
Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca (Muller) P-T
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus (Wilson) O-M
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum (Gmelin) O-M
Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea (Wilson) O-M
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus) PO-SM
American Redstart Setophaga rutacilla (Linnaeus) O-M
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus) P-T
Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin) PO-SM
Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia (Wilson) P-T
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus) CO-FS
Wilson’s Warbler Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) P-P
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert) PO-SM
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus) PO-SM
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens (Linnaeus) PO-SH
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) CO-FY
Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus) P-T
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus) P-T
Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus) P-D
Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo erythopthalmus (Linnaeus) P-T
American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea (Wilson) O-M
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina (Bechstein) P-D
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida (Swainson) PO-SH
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla (Wilson) CO-NE
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin) PO-SH
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin) P-T
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin) PO-SM
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca (Merrem) O-M
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia (Wilson) P-T
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana (Latham) P-T
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin) P-T
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster) O-M
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus) O-M
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus) O-M
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus) CO-FS
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus) P-A
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna (Linnaeus) CO-NE
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus (Muller) O-M
Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus) CO-FS
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater (Boddaert) P-P
Northern Oriole Icterus galbula (Linnaeus) P-T
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius (Linnaeus) PO-SM
Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus) O-M
Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) P-P
House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus (Muller) PO-SM
Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus O-M
White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera Gmelin O-X
Common Redpoll Cardeulis flammea (Linnaeus) O-M
Pine Siskin Cardeulis pinus (Wilson) O-M
American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis (Linnaeus) CO-NE
Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus (Cooper) O-M
House Sparrow Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) O-X
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Trumpeter Swan2 Cygnus buccinator Richardson O-M


1A male Brewster’s Warbler paired with a female Golden-winged Warbler were seen together several times between late May and late June 1998, when the pair was observed carrying food and exhibiting agitated behaviour.

2Frequently observed in the large ponds just to the north of the centre of the property.

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