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Birds of Jokers Hill

Updated:   August 11, 2020

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King Township, Regional Municipality of York

S. Blaney and P.M. Kotanen*

*Correspondence author:
Department of Biology
University of Toronto, Mississauga
e-mail: peter.kotanen@utoronto.ca

This list is a compilation of the 1997-2014 observations of the authors and numerous observers (including W. Kilburn, R. Joos, M. Johnson, K. Shackleton, S. Varga, and J. Jensen), as well as the observations of W. Fox from 1971 to 1998, with some later additions. Red-bellied Woodpecker, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and Yellow-breasted Chat were added in 2014 by an on-site banding program. See Blaney 1999 (Seed Bank Dynamics of Native and Exotic Plants in Open Uplands of Southern Ontario: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Botany) for the original version of this list and additional details. All 163 species on the main list were observed from within the Jokers Hill property boundaries. As this work was secondary to our main research only a low percentage of the species actually breeding on the site were recorded in the confirmed category. Almost all species in the possible (PO) and probable (P) breeding categories likely do breed on the site. Status codes are as follows:

O – Observed without evidence of breeding

M – observed only as a migrant or winter resident

X – observed during the species’ breeding season without evidence of breeding

PO – breeding possible

SH – observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

SM – singing male observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

P – breeding probable

P -pair observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

T – singing male observed in the same area on visits separated by at least two weeks

A – agitated behaviour

D – breeding display or intraspecies hostility

N – nest building

CO – breeding confirmed

AE – adult entering presumed nest site

DD – distraction display

NU – used nest

FS – adult carrying food or faecal sac

NE- nest with eggs

NY – nest with young

FY – flightless or dependent young

Common LoonGavia immer (Brunnich)O-M
Pied-billed GrebePodilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus)O-M
American BitternBotaurus lentiginosus (Rackett)O-M
Great Blue HeronArdea herodias LinnaeusO-X
Green HeronButorides striatus (Linnaeus)O-X
Canada GooseBranta canadensis (Linnaeus)P-P
Wood DuckAix sponsa (Linnaeus)P-P
Green-winged TealAnas crecca LinnaeusO-M
MallardAnas platyrhynchos LinnaeusCO-FY
Blue-winged TealAnas discors LinnaeusO-M
RedheadAythya americana (Eyton)O-M
Ring-necked DuckAythya collaris (Donovan)O-M
BuffleheadBucephala albeola (Linnaeus)O-M
Hooded MerganserLophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus)O-M
Common MerganserMergus merganser LinnaeusO-M
Turkey VultureCathartes aura (Linnaeus)O-X
Northern HarrierCircus cyaneus (Linnaeus)O-X
Sharp-shinned HawkAccipiter striatus VieillotPO-SH
Cooper’s HawkAccipiter cooperii (Bonaparte)CO-FS
Northern GoshawkAccipiter gentilis (Linnaeus)O-X
Broad-winged HawkButeo platypterus (Vieillot)P-T
Red-shouldered HawkButeo lineatus (Gmelin)CO-NY
Red-tailed HawkButeo jamaicensis (Gmelin)P-A
OspreyPandion haliaetus LinnaeusO-M
American KestrelFalco sparverius LinnaeusPO-SH
Bald EagleHaliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus)O-M
Ruffed GrouseBonasa umbellatus (Linnaeus)CO-FY
Wild TurkeyMeleagris gallopavo LinnaeusCO-FY
American CootFulica americana GmelinO-M
Sandhill CraneGrus canadensis (Linnaeus)O-M
KilldeerCharadrius vociferus LinnaeusP-T
Solitary SandpiperTringa solitaria WilsonO-M
Spotted SandpiperActitis macularia (Linnaeus)PO-SH
Common SnipeGallinago gallinago (Linnaeus)P-T
American WoodcockScolopax minor GmelinCO-FY
Ring-billed GullLarus delawarensis OrdO-X
Herring GullLarus argenteus PontoppidanO-X
Caspian TernSterna caspia PallasO-X
Rock DoveColumba livia GmelinCO-AE
Mourning DoveZenaida macroura (Linnaeus)P-T
Yellow-billed CuckooCoccyzus americanus (Linnaeus)PO-SM
Black-billed CuckooCoccyzus erythropthalmus (Linnaeus)P-T
Eastern Screech-OwlOtus asio (Linnaeus)P-T
Great Horned OwlBubo virginianus GmelinP-T
Barred OwlStrix varia BartonP-T
Great Gray OwlStrix nebulosa ForsterO-M
Snowy OwlNyctaea scandiaca (Linnaeus)O-M
Common NighthawkChordeiles minor (Forster)O-X
Whip-poor-willCaprimulgus vociferus WilsonPO-SM
Ruby-throated HummingbirdArchilochus colubris (Linnaeus)CO-NE
Belted KingfisherCeryle alcyon(Linnaeus)O-X
Red-bellied WoodpeckerMelanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus)PO-SH
Yellow-bellied SapsuckerSphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus)P-N
Downy WoodpeckerPicoides pubescens (Linnaeus)P-P
Hairy WoodpeckerPicoides villosus (Linnaeus)CO-NY
Northern FlickerColaptes auratus (Linnaeus)CO-FY
Pileated WoodpeckerDrycopus pileatus (Linnaeus)P-T
Olive-sided FlycatcherContopus borealis (Swainson)O-M
Eastern Wood-PeweeContopus virens (Linnaeus)P-D
Yellow-bellied FlycatcherEmpidonax flaviventris (Baird and Baird)O-M
Alder FlycatcherEmpidonax alnorum BrewsterP-T
Least FlycatcherEmpidonax minimus (Baird and Baird)P-T
Eastern PhoebeSayornis phoebe (Latham)P-P
Great Crested FlycatcherMyiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus)P-D
Eastern KingbirdTyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus)P-T
Northern ShrikeLanius excubitor (Linnaeus)O-M
Horned LarkEremophila alpestris (Linnaeus)PO-SM
Purple MartinProgne subis (Linnaeus)O-X
Tree SwallowTachycineta bicolor (Vieillot)P-T
Northern Rough-winged SwallowStelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon)O-X
Bank SwallowRiparia riparia (Linnaeus)O-X
Cliff SwallowHirundo pyrronota VieillotO-X
Barn SwallowHirundo rustica LinnaeusCO-NY
Blue JayCyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus)P-P
American CrowCorvus brachyrhynchos BrehmCO-FY
Common RavenCorvus corax LinnaeusO-M
Black-capped ChickadeeParus atricapillus LinnaeusCO-FY
Red-breasted NuthatchSitta canadensis LinnaeusCO-FY
White-breasted NuthatchSitta carolinensis LathamP-T
Brown CreeperCerthia americana BonaparteP-T
House WrenTroglodytes aedon VieillotCO-FY
Winter WrenTroglodytes trodglodytes (Linnaeus)P-T
Sedge WrenCistothorus platensis (Latham)PO-SM
Golden-crowned KingletRegulus satrapa LichtensteinP-T
Ruby-crowned KingletRegulus calendula (Linnaeus)O-M
Eastern BluebirdSialia sialis (Linnaeus)P-P
VeeryCatharus fuscescens (Stephens)P-T
Hermit ThrushCatharus guttatus (Pallas)O-M
Wood ThrushHylocichla mustelina (Gmelin)P-T
American RobinTurdus migratorius LinnaeusCO-NE
Gray CatbirdDumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus)P-T
Brown ThrasherToxostoma rufum (Linnaeus)PO-SM
American PipitAnthus rubescens (Tunstall)O-M
Cedar WaxwingBombycilla cedrorum VieillotP-P
Bohemian WaxwingBombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus)O-M
European StarlingSturnus vulgaris LinnaeusCO-NY
Solitary VireoVireo solitarius (Wilson)P-T
Warbling VireoVireo gilvus (Vieillot)P-T
Philadelphia VireoVireo philadelphicus (Gmelin)O-M
Red-eyed VireoVireo olivaceus (Linnaeus)P-T
Blue-winged WarblerVermivora pinus (Linnaeus)CO-FS
Golden-winged Warbler1Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus)CO-FS
“Brewster’s Warbler”1Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus)CO-FS
 xVermivora pinus (Linnaeus) 
Tennessee WarblerVermivora peregrina (Wilson)O-M
Orange-crowned WarblerVermivora celata (Say)O-M
Nashville WarblerVermivora ruficapilla (Wilson)P-N
Yellow WarblerDendroica petechia (Linnaeus)P-P
Chestnut-sided WarblerDendroica pensylvanica (Linnaeus)PO-SM
Magnolia WarblerDendroica magnolia (Wilson)P-T
Black-throated Blue WarblerDendroica caerulescens (Gmelin)O-M
Yellow-rumped WarblerDendroica coronata (Linnaeus)P-T
Black-throated Green WarblerDendroica virens (Gmelin)P-T
Blackburnian WarblerDendroica fusca (Muller)P-T
Pine WarblerDendroica pinus (Wilson)O-M
Palm WarblerDendroica palmarum (Gmelin)O-M
Bay-breasted WarblerDendroica castanea (Wilson)O-M
Black-and-white WarblerMniotilta varia (Linnaeus)PO-SM
American RedstartSetophaga rutacilla (Linnaeus)O-M
OvenbirdSeiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus)P-T
Northern WaterthrushSeiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin)PO-SM
Mourning WarblerOporornis philadelphia (Wilson)P-T
Common YellowthroatGeothlypis trichas (Linnaeus)CO-FS
Wilson’s WarblerWilsonia pusilla (Wilson)P-P
Hooded WarblerWilsonia citrina (Boddaert)PO-SM
Canada WarblerWilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus)PO-SM
Yellow-breasted ChatIcteria virens (Linnaeus)PO-SH
Scarlet TanagerPiranga olivacea (Gmelin)CO-FY
Northern CardinalCardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus)P-T
Rose-breasted GrosbeakPheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus)P-T
Indigo BuntingPasserina cyanea (Linnaeus)P-D
Rufous-sided TowheePipilo erythopthalmus (Linnaeus)P-T
American Tree SparrowSpizella arborea (Wilson)O-M
Chipping SparrowSpizella passerina (Bechstein)P-D
Clay-colored SparrowSpizella pallida (Swainson)PO-SH
Field SparrowSpizella pusilla (Wilson)CO-NE
Vesper SparrowPooecetes gramineus (Gmelin)PO-SH
Savannah SparrowPasserculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)P-T
Grasshopper SparrowAmmodramus savannarum (Gmelin)PO-SM
Fox SparrowPasserella iliaca (Merrem)O-M
Song SparrowMelospiza melodia (Wilson)P-T
Swamp SparrowMelospiza georgiana (Latham)P-T
White-throated SparrowZonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin)P-T
White-crowned SparrowZonotrichia leucophrys (Forster)O-M
Dark-eyed JuncoJunco hyemalis (Linnaeus)O-M
Snow BuntingPlectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus)O-M
BobolinkDolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus)CO-FS
Red-winged BlackbirdAgelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus)P-A
Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magna (Linnaeus)CO-NE
Rusty BlackbirdEuphagus carolinus (Muller)O-M
Common GrackleQuiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus)CO-FS
Brown-headed CowbirdMolothrus ater (Boddaert)P-P
Northern OrioleIcterus galbula (Linnaeus)P-T
Orchard OrioleIcterus spurius (Linnaeus)PO-SM
Pine GrosbeakPinicola enucleator (Linnaeus)O-M
Purple FinchCarpodacus purpureus (Gmelin)P-P
House FinchCarpodacus mexicanus (Muller)PO-SM
Red CrossbillLoxia curvirostra LinnaeusO-M
White-winged CrossbillLoxia leucoptera GmelinO-X
Common RedpollCardeulis flammea (Linnaeus)O-M
Pine SiskinCardeulis pinus (Wilson)O-M
American GoldfinchCarduelis tristis (Linnaeus)CO-NE
Evening GrosbeakCoccothraustes vespertinus (Cooper)O-M
House SparrowPasser domesticus (Linnaeus)O-X
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Trumpeter Swan2Cygnus buccinator RichardsonO-M

1A male Brewster’s Warbler paired with a female Golden-winged Warbler were seen together several times between late May and late June 1998, when the pair was observed carrying food and exhibiting agitated behaviour.

2Frequently observed in the large ponds just to the north of the centre of the property.

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