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Vascular Plants of Jokers Hill

Updated: December 15, 2021

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King Township, Regional Municipality of York, Ontario
(second edition, revision 1)

Tubba Babar, C. Sean Blaney, and Peter M. Kotanen*

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
University of Toronto Mississauga
3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON
Canada L5L 1C6

Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, P.O. Box 6416, Sackville NB, Canada E4L 1G6

*Correspondence author. e-mail: peter.kotanen@utoronto.ca

The first edition of this list was compiled by C. Sean Blaney and was published as an appendix to his M.Sc. thesis (Blaney C.S. 1999. Seed bank dynamics of native and exotic plants in open uplands of southern Ontario. University of Toronto. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/14382/). It subsequently was formatted for the web by P.M. Kotanen and made available on the Koffler Scientific Reserve website (http://ksr.utoronto.ca/), where it was revised periodically to reflect additions and taxonomic changes. This second edition represents a major revision reflecting recent phylogenetic and nomenclatural changes and adding additional species; it will be updated periodically.

This property was donated to the University of Toronto in 1995. This list is based on observations at this site by C.S. Blaney, P.M. Kotanen, and many others beginning in 1997; a partial list of contributors may be found in Blaney (1999). Care has been taken to include only species which have been identified with certainty, and numerous experts have assisted with observations and difficult identifications, notably P. Ball and M.T.J. Johnson (University of Toronto), T. Dickinson and J. Bull (Royal Ontario Museum), A. Reznicek (University of Michigan), and W. Wagner (United States National Herbarium). Voucher specimens have been collected for many difficult identifications. Approximately 160 species (indicated by †) are documented by specimens donated to the Royal Ontario Museum / University of Toronto herbarium (TRT); numerous additional species are represented in the Koffler Scientific Reserve on-site herbarium. The phylogenetic classification of ferns and allies follows the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I 2016: Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54, 563-603), classification for gymnosperms is based on Christenhusz et al. 2011 (Phytotaxa 19, 55-70), and classification for angiosperms follows the Angiosperm Phylogeny IV system (APG IV 2016: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181, 1-20). Scientific and English nomenclature follow the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN) (https://data.canadensys.net/vascan/); VASCAN or the first edition of this list may be consulted for synonymy.

This list includes all species known to be growing outside of cultivation within the Koffler Scientific Reserve during the observation period. This includes a number of tree species which are questionably established, but nonetheless are widely planted on the property. Also listed are 13 native species found in land adjacent to the Jokers Hill property, but not yet found on the site (scientific name preceded by “*”). A total of 639 species and hybrids are listed; 450 taxa listed by VASCAN as native to Ontario (those listed in bold typeface) and 189 are considered non-native (listed in regular typeface). Not all listed species still may occur on-site (e.g., American Ginseng – not seen since 2008). Information on any additional species (preferably with photographs or specimens) would be welcomed by the authors.

Clicking on the latin binomial of each species will bring you to GBIF occurrence records for that species.

Scientific NameCommon Name
 Dendrolycopodium dendroideum (Michx.) A. Haines (s.st.)Round-branched Tree-clubmoss
 Diphasiastrum digitatum Dill. ex A. Braun (Holub)Southern Ground-cedar
 Diphasiastrum tristachyum (Pursh) HolubBlue Ground-cedar
 Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trevis.Shining Firmoss
 Lycopodium clavatum L.Running Clubmoss
 Equisetum arvense L.Field Horsetail
 Equisetum fluviatile L.Water Horsetail
 Equisetum hyemale L.Common Scouring-rush
 Equisetum pratense Ehrh.Meadow Horsetail
 Equisetum scirpoides Michx.Dwarf Scouring-rush
 Equisetum sylvaticum L.Woodland Horsetail
 Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex Fried., Weber & Mohr.Variegated Horsetail
 Botrychium matricariifolium (Döll) A. Braun ex KochDaisy-leaved Moonwort
 Botrypus virginianus (L.) Michx.Rattlesnake Fern
 Sceptridium dissectum (Spreng.) LyonCutleaf Grapefern
 Sceptridium multifidum (S. G. Gmelin) Nishida ex TagawaLeathery Grapefern
Osmundaceae(Royal Ferns)
 Claytosmunda claytoniana (L.) Metzgar & RouhanInterrupted Fern
 Osmunda regalis L.Royal Fern
 Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. PreslCinnamon Fern
POLYPODIALESLeptosporangiate Ferns
Pteridaceae(Maidenhair Ferns)
 Adiantum pedatum L.Northern Maidenhair Fern
Dennstaedtiaceae(Bracken Ferns)
 Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. MooreEastern Hay-scented Fern
 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) KuhnBracken Fern
Cystopteridaceae(Bladder Ferns)
 Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh.Bulblet Bladder Fern
Cystopteris tenuis (Michx.) Desv.Mackay’s Brittle Fern
 Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) NewmanCommon Oak Fern
 Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes ex D. EatonEbony Spleenwort
Onocleaceae(Sensitive Ferns)
 Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod.Ostrich Fern
 Onoclea sensibilis L.Sensitive Fern
Athyriaceae(Lady Ferns)
 Deparia acrostichoides (Swartz) M. KatoSilvery Spleenwort
Thelypteridaceae(Marsh Ferns)
 Parathelypteris noveboracensis (L.) ChingNew York Fern
 Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) WattNorthern Beech Fern
 Thelypteris palustris (Salisb.) SchottMarsh Fern
Dryopteridaceae(Wood Ferns)
 Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth.Common Lady Fern
 Dryopteris ×boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw.Boott’s Wood Fern
 Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. FuchsSpinulose Wood Fern
 Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. GrayCrested Wood Fern
 Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A. GrayGoldie’s Wood Fern
 Dryopteris intermedia (Muhlenb. ex Willd.) A. GrayEvergreen Wood Fern
 Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. GrayMarginal Wood Fern
 Dryopteris ×triploidea WherryTriploid Wood Fern
 Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) SchottChristmas Fern
 Polypodium virginianum L.Rock Polypody
PINALESPines and Spruces
 Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. KochTamarack
 Picea abies (L.) KarstenNorway Spruce
 Picea glauca (Moench) VossWhite Spruce
 Picea pungens Engelm.Blue Spruce
 Pinus banksiana Lamb.Jack Pine
 Pinus resinosa Sol. ex AitonRed Pine
 Pinus strobus L.Eastern White Pine
 Pinus sylvestris L. Scots Pine
 Tsuga canadensis (L.) CarrièreEastern Hemlock
 Juniperus communis L.Common Juniper
 Juniperus virginiana L.Eastern Red Cedar
 Thuja occidentalis L.Eastern White Cedar
 Taxus canadensis MarshallCanada Yew
 Asarum canadense L.Canada Wild-ginger
 Arisaema triphyllum (L.) SchottJack-in-the-pulpit
 Lemna minor L.Small Duckweed
 Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.Greater Duckweed
 Wolffia columbiana Karst.Columbia Watermeal
 Alisma triviale PurshNorthern Water-plantain
 Sagittaria latifolia Willd.Broad-leaved Arrowhead
 Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostkov & W. SchmidtSlender Naiad
 Stuckenia pectinata (L.) BoernerSago Pondweed
 Trillium erectum L.Red Trillium
 Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.White Trillium
 Uvularia grandiflora Sm.Large-flowered Bellwort
 Smilax herbacea L.Herbaceous Carrionflower
 Smilax tamnoides L.Bristly Greenbrier
 Clintonia borealis (Aiton) Raf.Yellow Clintonia
 Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl.Yellow Trout Lily
 Medeola virginiana L.Indian Cucumber-root
 Streptopus lanceolatus (Aiton) RevealRose Twisted-stalk
ASPARAGALESAsparagoid Lilies
 *Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf.Spotted Coralroot
 Corallorhiza trifida Châtel.Early Coralroot
 Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb.Yellow Lady’s-slipper
 Cypripedium reginae WalterShowy Lady’s-slipper
 Epipactis helleborine (L.) CrantzBroad-leaved Helleborine
 Galearis spectabilis (L.) Raf.Showy Orchis
 Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. ex Lindl.Loesel’s Twayblade
 *Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.White Adder’s-mouth
 Platanthera aquilonis SheviakTall Northern Green Orchid
 Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.Sphinx Ladies’-tresses
 Iris versicolor L.Harlequin Blue Flag
 Sisyrinchium montanum GreeneStrict Blue-eyed Grass
 Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.Orange Daylily
 Allium tricoccum Solander in AitonWild Leek
 Asparagus officinalis L.Garden Asparagus
 Maianthemum canadense Desf.Wild Lily-of-the-valley
 Maianthemum racemosum (L.) LinkLarge False Solomon’s Seal
 Maianthemum stellatum (L.) LinkStar-flowered False Solomon’s Seal
 Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) PurshHairy Solomon’s Seal
POALESGrasses & Allies
 Sparganium emersum RehmannGreen-fruited Burreed
 Typha angustifolia L.Narrow-leaved Cattail
 Typha latifolia L.Broad-leaved Cattail
 Juncus articulatus L.Jointed Rush
 Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern.Short-tailed Rush
 Juncus bufonius L.Toad Rush
 Juncus compressus Jacq.Compressed Rush
 Juncus dudleyi WiegandDudley’s Rush
 Juncus effusus L.Soft Rush
 Juncus nodosus L. Knotted Rush
 Juncus tenuis Willd.Path Rush
 Juncus torreyi CovilleTorrey’s Rush
 Carex albursina E. Sheld.White Bear Sedge
 Carex aquatilis Wahlenb.Water Sedge
 Carex arctata BoottDrooping Woodland Sedge
 Carex aurea Nutt.Golden Sedge
 *Carex backii BoottBack’s Sedge
 Carex bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Olney ex Fern.Bebb’s Sedge
 Carex blanda DeweyWoodland Sedge
 Carex cephalophora Muhlenb. ex Willd.Oval-leaved Sedge
 Carex communis L.H. BaileyFibrous-root Sedge
 Carex cristatella BrittonCrested Sedge
 Carex deweyana Schwein.Dewey’s Sedge
 Carex disperma DeweyTwo-seeded Sedge
 Carex flava L. Yellow Sedge
 Carex gracillima Schwein.Graceful Sedge
 Carex granularis Muhlenb. ex Willd.Limestone Meadow Sedge
 *Carex hirtifolia Mack.Pubescent Sedge
 Carex hitchcockiana DeweyHitchcock’s Sedge
 Carex hystericina Muhlenb. ex Willd.Porcupine Sedge
 Carex interior L. H. BaileyInland Sedge
 *Carex intumescens RudgeBladder Sedge
 Carex laevivaginata (Kükenth.) Mack.Smooth-sheathed Sedge
 Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh.Woolly-fruited Sedge
 Carex laxiflora Lam.Loose-flowered Sedge
 Carex leptalea Wahlenb.Bristle-stalked Sedge
 Carex leptonervia (Fern.) Fern.Finely-nerved Sedge
 Carex lupulina Muhlenb. ex Willd.Hop Sedge
 Carex muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd.Muhlenberg’s Sedge
 Carex peckii HowePeck’s Sedge
 Carex pedunculata Muhlenb. ex Willd.Long-stalked Sedge
 Carex pensylvanica Lam.Pennsylvania Sedge
 Carex plantaginea Lam.Plantain-leaved Sedge
 Carex platyphylla J. CareyBroad-leaved Sedge
 *Carex projecta Mack.Necklace Sedge
 Carex pseudocyperus L.Cyperus-like Sedge
 Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) SmallEastern Star Sedge
 Carex retrorsa Schwein.Retrorse Sedge
 Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd.Rose Sedge
 Carex scabrata Schwein.Eastern Rough Sedge
 Carex schweinitzii (Dewey ex Schwein.) × utriculata BoottHybrid Sedge
 Carex sparganioides Muhlenb. ex Willd.Burreed Sedge
 Carex spicata Huds.Spiked Sedge
 Carex sprengelii Dewey ex Spreng.Sprengel’s Sedge
 Carex stipata Muhlenb. ex Willd.Awl-fruited Sedge
 Carex tonsa (Fern.) BicknellDeep-green Sedge
 Carex vulpinoidea Michx.Fox Sedge
 Cyperus bipartitus Torr.Shining Flatsedge
 Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) MarcksHop Flatsedge
 Eleocharis erythropoda Steud.Red-stemmed Spikerush
 Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult.Blunt Spikerush
 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K. C. Gmel.) PallaSoft-stemmed Bulrush
 Scirpus atrovirens Willd.Dark-green Bulrush
 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) KunthCommon Woolly Bulrush
 Scirpus microcarpus C. PreslRed-tinged Bulrush
 Agrostis gigantea RothRedtop
 Agrostis scabra Willd.Rough Bentgrass
 Agrostis stolonifera L.Creeping Bentgrass
 Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.Short-awn Foxtail
 Avena sativa L.Cultivated Oats
 *Brachyelytrum erectum (s.l.) (Schreb. ex Spreng.) Beauv.Southern Shorthusk
 Bromus ciliatus L.Fringed Brome
 Bromus inermis Leyss.Smooth Brome
 Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv.Bluejoint Reedgrass
 Cinna latifolia (Trevir. ex Goepp.) Griseb. in LedebDrooping Woodreed
 Dactylis glomerata L.Orchard Grass
 Danthonia spicata (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.Poverty Oatgrass
 Dichanthelium acuminatum (Swartz) Gould & C.A. ClarkTapered Panicgrass
 Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhlenberg) Gould.Starved Panicgrass
 Dichanthelium linearifolium (Scribner) GouldLinear-leaved Panicgrass
 Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhlenb.Smooth Crabgrass
 Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Hairy Crabgrass
 Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.Barnyard Grass
 Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern.Rough Barnyard Grass
 Elymus repens (L.) GouldQuackgrass
 Elymus virginicus L.Virginia Wildrye
 Eragrostis minor HostLittle Lovegrass
 Festuca rubra L.Red Fescue
 Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) AlexeevNodding Fescue
 Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) KrajinaHard Fescue
 Glyceria grandis S. Watson ex A. GrayTall Mannagrass
 Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.Fowl Mannagrass
 Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw.Rice Cutgrass
 Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. DarbyshireTall Ryegrass
 Lolium perenne L.Perennial Ryegrass
 Milium effusum L.Wood Millet
 Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.Mexican Muhly
 Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx.Rough-leaved Mountain-rice
 Panicum capillare L.Common Panicgrass
 Phalaris arundinacea L.Reed Canarygrass
 Phleum pratense L.Common Timothy
 Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.Common Reed
 Poa alsodes A. GrayGrove Bluegrass
 Poa annua L.Annual Bluegrass
 Poa compressa L.Canada Bluegrass
 Poa palustris L.Fowl Bluegrass
 Poa pratensis L.Kentucky Bluegrass
 Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen.Purple False Melic
 Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.Yellow Foxtail
 Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.Green Foxtail
 Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb.Slender Wedge Grass
 Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. GraySand Dropseed
 Sporobolus neglectus NashSmall Dropseed
 Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A. Gray) Torr. ex AlphSheathed Dropseed
RANUNCULALESPoppies, Barberries & Crowfoots
 Chelidonium majus L.Greater Celandine
 Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp.Squirrel-corn
 Sanguinaria canadensis L.Bloodroot
 Berberis thunbergii DC.Japanese Barberry
 Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.Blue Cohosh
 Podophyllum peltatum L.May-apple
 Actaea ×ludovici B. BoivinHybrid Baneberry
 Actaea pachypoda ElliottWhite Baneberry
 Actaea rubra Willd.Red Baneberry
 Anemone cylindrica A. GrayLong-fruited Anemone
 Anemone virginiana L.Tall Anemone
 Aquilegia canadensis L.Red Columbine
 Aquilegia vulgaris L.European Columbine
 Caltha palustris L.Yellow Marsh Marigold
 Clematis virginiana L.Virginia Clematis
 Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.Goldthread
 Hepatica acutiloba DC.Sharp-lobed Hepatica
 Ranunculus abortivus L.Kidney-leaved Buttercup
 Ranunculus acris L.Common Buttercup
 Ranunculus recurvatus Poir.Hooked Buttercup
 Ranunculus sceleratus L.Cursed Buttercup
 Thalictrum dioicum L.Early Meadow-rue
 Thalictrum pubescens PurshTall Meadow-rue
SAXIFRAGALESSaxifrages & Allies
 Hamamelis virginiana L.American Witch-hazel
 Ribes alpinum L.Alpine Currant
 Ribes americanum MillerAmerican Black Currant
 Ribes cynosbati L.Eastern Prickly Gooseberry
 Ribes hirtellum Michx.Swamp Gooseberry
 *Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir.Bristly Black Currant
 Ribes rubrum L.European Red Currant
 Ribes triste Pall.Swamp Red Currant
 Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. ex Hook.American Golden-saxifrage
 Mitella diphylla L.Two-leaved Mitrewort
 Mitella nuda L.Naked Mitrewort
 Tiarella cordifolia L.Heart-leaved Foamflower
 Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. OhbaGarden Stonecrop
 Sedum acre L.Mossy Stonecrop
 Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) A.S. Hitchc.Thicket Creeper
 Vitis riparia Michx.Riverbank Grape
FABALESLegumes & Milkworts
For a list of the rhizobia associated with KSR’s legumes, please click here.
 Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern.American Hog-peanut
 Desmodium canadense (L.) DC.Showy Tick Trefoil
 Gleditsia triacanthos L.Honey Locust
 Hylodesmum glutinosum (Muhlenb. ex Willd.) H. Ohashi & R.R. MillLarge Tick-trefoil
 Lotus corniculatus L.Garden Bird’s-foot Trefoil
 Medicago lupulina L.Black Medick
 Medicago sativa L.Alfalfa
 Melilotus albus Medik.White Sweet-clover
 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.Yellow Sweet-clover
 Robinia pseudoacacia L.Black Locust
 Trifolium campestre Schreb.Low Hop Clover
 Trifolium hybridum L.Alsike Clover
 Trifolium pratense L.Red Clover
 Trifolium repens L.White Clover
 Vicia cracca L.Tufted Vetch
 Vicia sativa L.Common Vetch
 Vicia tetrasperma Schreb.Four-seed Vetch
 Polygaloides paucifolia (Willd.) J.R. AbbottFringed Milkwort
ROSALESRoses & Allies
 Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.Hooked Agrimony
 Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern.Downy Serviceberry
 Amelanchier interior NielsonInland Serviceberry
 Amelanchier laevis WiegandSmooth Serviceberry
 Crataegus chrysocarpa AsheFireberry Hawthorn
 Crataegus sect. Coccineae LoudonHawthorn sp. sect. Coccineae
 Crataegus macracantha Lodd. ex LoudonLarge-thorned Hawthorn
 Crataegus monogyna Jacq.English Hawthorn
 Crataegus punctata Jacq.Dotted Hawthorn
 Crataegus submollis Sarg.Quebec Hawthorn
 Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex LinkFleshy Hawthorn
 Drymocallis arguta (Pursh) Rydb.Tall Wood Beauty
 Fragaria vesca L.Woodland Strawberry
 Fragaria virginiana MillerWild Strawberry
 Geum aleppicum Jacq.Yellow Avens
 Geum canadense Jacq.White Avens
 Geum fragarioides (Michx.) SmedmarkBarren Strawberry
 Geum laciniatum MurrayRough Avens
 Geum rivale L.Water Avens
 Geum urbanum L.Wood Avens
 Malus pumila MillerCommon Apple
 Potentilla norvegica L.Rough Cinquefoil
 Potentilla recta L.Sulphur Cinquefoil
 Prunus nigra AitonCanada Plum
 Prunus pensylvanica L. f.Pin Cherry
 Prunus serotina Ehrh.Black Cherry
 Prunus virginiana L.Choke Cherry
 Pyrus communis L.Common Pear
 Rosa blanda AitonSmooth Rose
 Rosa carolina L.Carolina Rose
 Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex MurrayMultiflora Rose
 Rubus allegheniensis PorterAllegheny Blackberry
 Rubus idaeus L. ssp. strigosus (Michx.) Focke.Red Raspberry
 Rubus occidentalis L.Black Raspberry
 Rubus odoratus L.Purple-flowering Raspberry
 Rubus pubescens Raf.Dwarf Raspberry
 Sorbus aucuparia L.European Mountain-ash
 Rhamnus cathartica L.European Buckthorn
 Ulmus americana L.White Elm
 Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.Small-spike False Nettle
 Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd.Canada Wood Nettle
 Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb.Lesser Clearweed
 Pilea pumila (L.) A. GrayDwarf Clearweed
 Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis L. ssp. gracilis (Aiton) SolanderStinging Nettle
FAGALESBeeches, Walnuts & Birches
 Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.American Beech
 Quercus alba L.White Oak
 Quercus macrocarpa Michx.Bur Oak
 Quercus rubra L.Northern Red Oak
 Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. KochBitternut Hickory
 Juglans cinerea L.Butternut
 Juglans nigra L.Black Walnut
 Betula alleghaniensis BrittonYellow Birch
 Betula papyrifera MarshallPaper Birch
 Carpinus caroliniana WalterBlue Beech
 Corylus cornuta MarshallBeaked Hazelnut
 Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. KochEastern Hop-hornbeam
Cucurbitaceae(Gourds & Cucumbers)
 Cucurbita sp. Domestic Gourd sp.
 Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. GrayWild Cucumber
 Celastrus scandens L.Climbing Bittersweet
 Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) SieboldWinged Euonymus
 Oxalis montana Raf.White Wood-sorrel
 Oxalis stricta L.European Wood-sorrel
MALPIGHIALESViolets & Allies
Hypericaceae(St. John’s-worts)
 Hypericum perforatum L.Common St. John’s-wort
 Hypericum punctatum Lam.Spotted St. John’s-wort
 Viola arvensis MurrayEuropean Field Pansy
 Viola blanda Willd.Sweet White Violet
 Viola canadensis L.Canada Violet
 Viola cucullata AitonMarsh Blue Violet
 Viola labradorica SchrankLabrador Violet
 Viola macloskeyi F. E. LloydMacloskey’s Violet
 Viola pubescens AitonDowny Yellow Violet
 Viola renifolia A. GrayKidney-leaved Violet
 Viola rostrata PurshLong-spurred Violet
 Viola selkirkii Pursh ex GoldieSelkirk’s Violet
 Viola sororia (s.l.) Willd.Wooly Blue Violet
 Populus balsamifera L.Balsam Poplar
 Populus grandidentata Michx.Large-toothed Aspen
 Populus tremuloides Michx.Trembling Aspen
 Salix amygdaloides Anderss.Peach-leaved Willow
 Salix bebbiana Sarg.Bebb’s Willow
 Salix discolor Muhlenb.Pussy Willow
 Salix eriocephala Michx.Cottony Willow
 Salix ×fragilis L.Hybrid White Willow
 Salix interior RowleeSandbar Willow
 Salix lucida Muhlenb.Shining Willow
 Salix petiolaris Sm.Meadow Willow
 Salix serissima (L. H. Bailey) Fern.Autumn Willow
 Acalypha rhomboidea (Raf.) Cooperr.Common Three-seeded Mercury
 Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm.Ridge-seeded Spurge
 Euphorbia maculata L.Spotted Spurge
 Euphorbia cyparissias L.Cypress Spurge
 Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit.Leafy Spurge
 Geranium robertianum L. Herb-Robert
MYRTALESLoosestrifes & Evening-primroses
 Lythrum salicaria L.Purple Loosestrife
 Circaea alpinaSmall Enchanter’s Nightshade
 Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill ssp. canadensisCanada Enchanter’s Nightshade
 Epilobium ciliatum Raf.Northern Willowherb
 Epilobium hirsutum L.Hairy Willowherb
 Epilobium leptophyllum Raf.Linear-leaved Willowherb
 Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.Small-flowered Hairy Willowherb
 Epilobium strictum Muhlenb. ex Spreng.Downy Willowherb
 Oenothera biennis L.Common Evening-primrose
 Oenothera parviflora L.Small-flowered Evening-primrose
 Oenothera perennis L.Perennial Evening-primrose
 Oenothera villosa ssp. villosa Thunb.Hairy Evening-primrose
SAPINDALESSumacs, Maples & Allies
 Rhus typhina L.Staghorn Sumac
 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) KuntzePoison Ivy
Sapindaceae(Maples & Allies)
 Acer negundo L.Manitoba Maple
 *Acer nigrum Michx. f.Black Maple
 Acer platanoides L.Norway Maple
 Acer rubrum L. Red Maple
 Acer saccharinum L.Silver Maple
 Acer saccharum MarshallSugar Maple
 Acer spicatum Lam.Mountain Maple
 Acer tataricum L. ssp. ginnala (Maxim.) Wesm.Amur Maple
MALVALESMallows & Allies
 Malva neglecta Wallr.Common Mallow
 Tilia americana L.Basswood
 Tilia cordata MillerLittle-leaved Linden
 Dirca palustris L.Eastern Leatherwood
 Lechea intermedia Legg.Large-pod Pinweed
BRASSICALESMustards & Allies
 Tarenaya hassleriana (Chodat) H.H. IltisPink-queen
 Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & GrandeGarlic Mustard
 Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L.Small Alyssum
 Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.Bitter Wintercress
 Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC.Small-seeded False-flax
 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.Common Shepherd’s Purse
 Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) WoodTwo-leaved Toothwort
 Cardamine hirsuta L.Hairy Bittercress
 Cardamine pensylvanica Muhlenb. ex Willd.Pennsylvania Bittercress
 Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex PrantlFlixweed
 Draba verna L.Spring Draba
 Erysimum cheiranthoides L.Wormseed Wallflower
 Hesperis matronalis L.Dame’s Rocket
 Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br.Field Peppergrass
 Lepidium densiflorum Schrad.Common Peppergrass
 Nasturtium officinale W. T. AitonWatercress
 Rorippa palustris ssp. hispida (L.) Besser ssp. hispida (Desv.) JonsellHispid Marsh Yellowcress
 Sinapis arvensis L.Corn Mustard
 Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.Common Tumble Mustard
 Thlaspi arvense L.Field Pennycress
 Turritis glabra (L.) Bernh.Tower Mustard
 Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. LöveEurasian Black Bindweed
 Persicaria hydropiper (L.) OpizMarshpepper Smartweed
 Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) GrayPale Smartweed
 Persicaria maculosa S. F. GraySpotted Lady’s-thumb
 Polygonum achoreum BlakeLeathery Knotweed
 Polygonum aviculare L.Prostrate Knotweed
 Rumex acetosella L.Sheep Sorrel
 Rumex britannica L.Great Water Dock
 Rumex crispus L.Curled Dock
 Rumex obtusifolius L.Bitter Dock
 Arenaria serpyllifolia L.Thyme-leaved Sandwort
 Cerastium fontanum Baumg.Common Mouse-ear Chickweed
 Dianthus armeria L.Deptford Pink
 Saponaria officinalis L.Bouncing-bet
 Silene antirrhina L.Sleepy Catchfly
 Silene latifolia Poir.White Campion
 Silene noctiflora L.Night-flowering Catchfly
 Silene vulgaris. (Moench) GarckeBladder Campion
 Stellaria graminea L.Grass-leaved Starwort
 Stellaria longifolia Muhlenb. ex Willd.Long-leaved Starwort
 Stellaria media (L.) Vill.Common Chickweed
 Amaranthus albus L.White Amaranth
 Amaranthus retroflexus L.Redroot Amaranth
 Atriplex patula L.Spear Saltbush
 Chenopodiastrum simplex (Torrey) S. Fuentes, Uotila & BorschMaple-leaved Goosefoot
 Chenopodium album L.Common Lamb’s-quarters
 Oxybasis glauca (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch.Oak-leaved Goosefoot
 Oxybasis rubra (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch.Red Goosefoot
Montiaceae(Water Chickweeds)
 Claytonia caroliniana Michx.Carolina Spring Beauty
 Portulaca oleracea L.Common Purslane
 Cornus alternifolia L. f.Alternate-leaved Dogwood
 Cornus canadensis L.Bunchberry
 Cornus rugosa Lam.Round-leaved Dogwood
 Cornus sericea L.Red-osier Dogwood
ERICALESHeaths & Allies
 Impatiens capensis Meerb.Spotted Jewelweed
 Lysimachia borealis (Rafinesque) U. Manns & AnderbergNorthern Starflower
 Lysimachia ciliata L.Fringed Loosestrife
 Chimaphila umbellata (L.) BartonCommon Pipsissewa
 Gaultheria procumbens L.Eastern Teaberry
 Hypopitys monotropa CrantzPinesap
 Moneses uniflora (L.) A. GrayOne-flowered Wintergreen
 Monotropa uniflora L.Indian-pipe
 Pyrola americana SweetRound-leaved Pyrola
 Pyrola asarifolia Michx.Pink Pyrola
 Pyrola elliptica Nutt.Shinleaf
 Vaccinium angustifolium AitonEarly Lowbush Blueberry
GENTIANALESGentians, Bedstraws & Milkweeds
 Galium aparine L.Common Bedstraw
 Galium boreale L.Northern Bedstraw
 Galium circaezans Michx.Wild Licorice
 Galium lanceolatum Torr.Lance-leaved Wild Licorice
 Galium mollugo L.Smooth Bedstraw
 Galium palustre L.Common Marsh Bedstraw
 Galium tinctorium L.Dyer’s Bedstraw
 *Galium trifidum L.Three-petalled Bedstraw
 Galium triflorum Michx.Three-flowered Bedstraw
 Galium verum L.Yellow Bedstraw
 Mitchella repens L.Partridge-berry
 Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.Andrews’ Bottle Gentian
 Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) MaGreater Fringed Gentian
 Apocynum androsaemifolium L.Spreading Dogbane
 Apocynum cannabinum L.Hemp Dogbane
 Asclepias incarnata L.Swamp Milkweed
 Asclepias syriaca L.Common Milkweed
 Asclepias tuberosa L.Butterfly Milkweed
 Vinca minor L.Lesser Periwinkle
 Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) BarbarichEuropean Swallowwort
 Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. JohnstonCorn Gromwell
 Cynoglossum officinale L.Common Hound’s-tongue
 Echium vulgare L.Common Viper’s Bugloss
 Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. JohnstonVirginia Stickseed
 *Hydrophyllum canadense L.Bluntleaf Waterleaf
 Hydrophyllum virginianum L.Virginia Waterleaf
 Myosotis scorpioides L.True Forget-me-not
 Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh. ex H. Hoffm.Woodland Forget-me-not
SOLANALESNightshades & Allies
 Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.Hedge False Bindweed
 Calystegia spithamaea (L.) PurshLow False Bindweed
 Convolvulus arvensis L.Field Bindweed
 Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex Schult.Swamp Dodder
 Physalis heterophylla NeesClammy Ground-cherry
 Solanum dulcamara L.Bittersweet Nightshade
 Solanum nigrum (s.l.) L.Black Nightshade
 Solanum tuberosum L.Potato
LAMIALESMints & Allies
 Fraxinus americana L.White Ash
 Fraxinus nigra MarshallBlack Ash
 Fraxinus pennsylvanica MarshallRed Ash
 Ligustrum vulgare L.European Privet
 Syringa vulgaris L.Common Lilac
 Chaenorhinum minus (L.) LangeDwarf Snapdragon
 Chelone glabra L.White Turtlehead
 Gratiola neglecta Torr.Clammy Hedge-hyssop
 Linaria vulgaris MillerButter-and-eggs
 Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex SimsFoxglove Beardtongue
 Plantago major L.Common Plantain
 Plantago lanceolata L.English Plantain
 Plantago rugelii Decne.Rugel’s Plantain
 Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. ex Benth.American Speedwell
 Veronica arvensis L.Corn Speedwell
 Veronica officinalis L.Common Speedwell
 Veronica peregrina ssp. peregrina L.Purslane Speedwell
 Veronica serpyllifolia L.Thyme-leaved Speedwell
 Verbascum thapsus L.Common Mullein
 Verbena hastata L.Blue Vervain
 Verbena stricta Vent.Hoary Vervain
 Verbena urticifolia L.White Vervain
 Clinopodium vulgare L.Wild Basil
 Galeopsis tetrahit L.Common Hemp-nettle
 Glechoma hederacea L.Ground-ivy
 Hedeoma hispida PurshRough False Pennyroyal
 Lamium amplexicaule L.Common Dead-nettle
 Leonurus cardiaca L.Common Motherwort
 Lycopus americanus Muhlenb. ex BartramAmerican Water-horehound
 Lycopus uniflorus Michx.Northern Water-horehound
 Mentha canadensis L.Canada Mint
 Mentha ×piperita L.Peppermint
 Monarda fistulosa L.Wild Bergamot
 Nepeta cataria L.Catnip
Origanum vulgare L.Wild Marjoram
 Prunella vulgaris L.Common Self-heal
 Scutellaria lateriflora L.Mad-dog Skullcap
 Mimulus ringens L.Square-stemmed Monkeyflower
 Phryma leptostachya L.Lopseed
 Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart.Beechdrops
ASTERALESAsters & Bellflowers
 Campanula aparinoides PurshMarsh Bellflower
 Campanula persicifolia L.Peach-leaved Bellflower
 Campanula rapunculoides L.Common Bellflower
 Lobelia inflata L.Indian-tobacco
 Lobelia siphilitica L.Great Blue Lobelia
 Lobelia spicata Lam.Pale-spiked Lobelia
 Achillea borealis Bong.Common Yarrow
 Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H. E. Robins.Common White Snakeroot
 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.Common Ragweed
 Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. F.Pearly Everlasting
 Antennaria neglecta GreeneField Pussytoes
 Antennaria parlinii Fern.Parlin’s Pussytoes
 Arctium lappa L.Great Burdock
 Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.Common Burdock
 Artemisia biennis Willd.Biennial Wormwood
 Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.Silver Wormwood
 Bidens cernua L.Nodding Beggarticks
 Bidens frondosa L.Devil’s Beggarticks
 Bidens tripartita (s.l.) L.Three-parted Beggarticks
 Bidens vulgata GreeneTall Beggarticks
 Carduus acanthoides L.Plumeless Thistle
 Carduus nutans L.Nodding Thistle
 Centaurea jacea L.Brown Knapweed
 Cichorium intybus L.Wild Chicory
 Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.Canada Thistle
 Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.Bull Thistle
 Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr.Smooth Hawksbeard
 Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.Annual Fleabane
 Erigeron canadensis L.Canada Horseweed
 Erigeron philadelphicus L.Philadelphia Fleabane
 Erigeron pulchellus Michx.Robin’s-plantain Fleabane
 Erigeron strigosus Muhlenb. ex Willd.Rough Fleabane
 Eupatorium perfoliatum L.Common Boneset
 Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass.Large-leaved Aster
 Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt.Grass-leaved Goldenrod
 Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E. E. LamontSpotted Joe Pye Weed
 Galinsoga quadriradiata Cav.Hairy Galinsoga
 Inula helenium L.Elecampane
 Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern.Tall Blue Lettuce
 Lactuca canadensis L.Canada Lettuce
 Lactuca serriola L.Prickly Lettuce
 Lapsana communis L.Common Nipplewort
 Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam.Oxeye Daisy
 Matricaria discoidea DC.Pineappleweed
 Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook.Tall Rattlesnakeroot
 Packera aurea (L.) A. & D. LöveGolden Groundsel
 Pilosella aurantiaca (L.) F. W. Schult. & Schult. BipontinusOrange Hawkweed
 Pilosella caespitosa (Dumortier) P. D. Sell & C. WestMeadow Hawkweed
 Pilosella officinarum F.W. Schult. & Schult. BipontinusMouse-ear Hawkweed
 Pilosella piloselloides (Villars) SojákTall Hawkweed
 Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & BurttFragrant Cudweed
 Rudbeckia hirta L.Black-eyed Susan
 Rudbeckia triloba L.Brown-eyed Susan
 Senecio viscosus L.Sticky Ragwort
 Senecio vulgaris L.Common Ragwort
 Solidago altissima L.Tall Goldenrod
 *Solidago arguta AitonCut-leaved Goldenrod
 Solidago caesia L.Blue-stemmed Goldenrod
 Solidago canadensis L.Canada Goldenrod
 Solidago flexicaulis L.Zigzag Goldenrod
 Solidago gigantea AitonGiant Goldenrod
 Solidago nemoralis AitonGray-stemmed Goldenrod
 Solidago rugosa MillerRough-stemmed Goldenrod
 Solidago uliginosa Nutt.Bog Goldenrod
 Sonchus arvensis L.Field Sow-thistle
 Sonchus asper (L.) HillPrickly Sow-thistle
 Sonchus oleraceus L.Annual Sow-thistle
 Symphyotrichum ×amethystinum (Nutt.) NesomAmethyst Aster
 Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G. L. NesomHeart-leaved Aster
 Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. NesomWhite Heath Aster
 Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) NesomWhite Panicled Aster
 Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. & D. LöveCalico Aster
 Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) NesomNew England Aster
 Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G. L. NesomSky-blue Aster
 Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) NesomOld Field Aster
 Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. & D. LövePurple-stemmed Aster
 Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) NesomArrow-leaved Aster
 Tanacetum vulgare L.Common Tansy
 Taraxacum erythrospermum Anderz. ex BesserRed-seeded Dandelion
 Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex WiggersCommon Dandelion
 Taraxacum palustre G. H. Weber ex WiggersMarsh Dandelion
 Tragopogon dubius Scop.Yellow Goatsbeard
 Tragopogon pratensis L.Meadow Goatsbeard
 Tussilago farfara L.Coltsfoot
DIPSACALESHoneysuckles & Moschatels
 Sambucus canadensis L.Common Elderberry
 Sambucus racemosa L.Red Elderberry
 Viburnum acerifolium L.Maple-leaved Viburnum
 Viburnum lantana L.Wayfaring Viburnum
 Viburnum lantanoides Michx.Hobblebush
 Viburnum lentago L.Nannyberry
 Viburnum nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torr. & GrayWild Raisin
 Viburnum opulus var. opulusCranberry Viburnum
 *Viburnum opulus var. americanum AitonHighbush Cranberry
 Diervilla lonicera MillerNorthern Bush-honeysuckle
 Dipsacus fullonum L.Common Teasel
 Linnaea borealis L.Twinflower
 Lonicera ×bella ZabelBell’s Honeysuckle
 Lonicera canadensis Bartram ex MarshallCanada Fly Honeysuckle
 Lonicera dioica L.Limber Honeysuckle
 Lonicera hirsuta EatonHairy Honeysuckle
 Lonicera tatarica L.Tartarian Honeysuckle
 Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S. F. BlakeThin-leaved Snowberry
 Triosteum aurantiacum E. P. BicknellOrange-fruited Horse-gentian
 Valeriana officinalis L.Common Valerian
APIALESCarrots & Ginsengs
 Aralia nudicaulis L.Wild Sarsaparilla
 Aralia racemosa L.American Spikenard
 Panax quinquefolius L.American Ginseng
 Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.Canada Honewort
 Daucus carota L.Wild Carrot
 Hydrocotyle americana L.American Water-pennywort
 Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B. ClarkeHairy Sweet Cicely
 Sanicula marilandica L.Maryland Sanicle
 *Sium suave WalterCommon Water-parsnip

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