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Birds of Jokers Hill

Updated:   14 May 2021

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King Township, Regional Municipality of York
(second edition, revision 1)

Tubba Babar, Theresa McKenzie, Glenn Reed, and Peter M. Kotanen*

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
University of Toronto Mississauga
3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, ON, Canada l5L 1C6
*Correspondence author. e-mail: peter.kotanen@utoronto.ca

The first edition of this list was compiled by C. Sean Blaney and was published as an appendix to his M.Sc. thesis (Blaney C.S. 1999. Seed bank dynamics of native and exotic plants in open uplands of southern Ontario. University of Toronto. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/14382/). It subsequently was formatted for the web by P.M. Kotanen and made available on the Koffler Scientific Reserve website (http://ksr.utoronto.ca/), where it was revised periodically to reflect additions and taxonomic changes. This second edition represents a major revision reflecting recent phylogenetic and nomenclatural changes and adding additional species; it will be updated periodically.

This property was donated to the University of Toronto in 1995. This list is based on observations at this site by C.S. Blaney, P.M. Kotanen, and many others beginning in 1997, supplemented with observations by property manager W. Fox between 1971 and 1998, and by an on-site banding program conducted by T. McKenzie and G. Reed since 2013. Phylogenetic classification and scientific and English nomenclature follow the American Ornithological Society’s (AOS) Checklist of North and Middle American Birds, 7th edition, 60th supplement (http://checklist.americanornithology.org/taxa). Breeding status codes are based on those used in the 2nd Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (2001-2005) (http://www.birdsontario.org/atlas/secondatlas.jsp). The codes are:

O – Observed without evidence of breeding
M – observed only as a migrant or winter resident
X – observed during the species’ breeding season without evidence of breeding

PO – breeding possible
H – observed in suitable habitat during breeding season
M – singing male observed in suitable habitat during breeding season

P – breeding probable
P -pair observed in suitable habitat during breeding season
T – singing male observed in the same area on visits separated by at least two weeks
A – agitated behaviour
D – breeding display or intraspecies hostility
N – nest building

CO – breeding confirmed
AE – adult entering presumed nest site
DD – distraction display
NU – used nest
FS – adult carrying food or faecal sac
NE- nest with eggs
NY – nest with young
FY – flightless or dependent young

This list includes all birds observed from within the boundaries of the Koffler Scientific Reserve during the observation period. Of the 186 species and hybrids listed, 182 are considered locally native, while 4 (Rock Dove, European Starling, House Sparrow, and House Finch) are introduced. Information on any additional species (preferably with photographs) would be welcomed by the authors.

Clicking on the latin binomial of each species will bring you to GBIF occurrence records for that species.

Scientific NameCommon NameCode
ANSERIFORMESDucks, Geese & Swans 
Anatidae(Ducks, Geese & Swans) 
Branta bernicla (Linnaeus)BrantO-M
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus)Canada GooseCO-FY
Cygnus buccinator RichardsonTrumpeter SwanO
Aix sponsa (Linnaeus)Wood DuckP-P
Spatula discors LinnaeusBlue-winged TealO-M
Anas platyrhynchos LinnaeusMallardCO-FY
Anas crecca LinnaeusGreen-winged TealO-M
Aythya americana (Eyton)RedheadO-M
Aythya collaris (Donovan)Ring-necked DuckO-M
Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus)BuffleheadO-M
Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus)Common GoldeneyeO-M
Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus)Hooded MerganserO-M
Mergus merganser LinnaeusCommon MerganserO-M
Phasianidae(Pheasants & Grouses) 
Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus)Ruffed GrouseCO-FY
Meleagris gallopavo LinnaeusWild TurkeyCO-FY
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus)Pied-billed GrebeO-M
Columbidae(Pigeons & Doves) 
Columba livia GmelinRock DoveCO-AE
Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus)Mourning DoveCO-FY
Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus)Yellow-billed CuckooPO-M
Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A. Wilson)Black-billed CuckooP-T
Chordeiles minor (J.R. Forster)Common NighthawkO-X
Antrostomus vociferus A. WilsonEastern Whip-poor-willPO-M
APODIFORMESHummingbirds & Swifts 
Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus)Chimney SwiftO-X
Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus)Ruby-throated HummingbirdCO-NE
GRUIFORMESCranes & Rails 
Rallidae(Rails, Crakes & Coots) 
Rallus limicola VieillotVirginia RailO-M
Porzana carolina (Linnaeus)SoraO-M
Fulica americana GmelinAmerican CootO-M
Antigone canadensis (Linnaeus)Sandhill CraneO-M
Charadrius vociferus LinnaeusKilldeerCO-FY
Scolopacidae(Sandpipers & Snipes) 
Scolopax minor GmelinAmerican WoodcockCO-FY
Gallinago delicata (Ord)Wilson’s SnipeP-T
Actitis macularius (Linnaeus)Spotted SandpiperPO-H
Tringa solitaria A. WilsonSolitary SandpiperO-M
Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin)Greater YellowlegsO-M
Laridae(Gulls & Terns) 
Larus delawarensis OrdRing-billed GullO-X
Larus argentatus PontoppidanHerring GullO-X
Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas)Caspian TernO-X
Gavia immer (Brünnich)Common LoonO-M
Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson)Double-crested CormorantO-X
PELECANIFORMESPelicans & Herons 
Ardeidae(Herons & Bitterns) 
Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett)American BitternO-M
Ardea herodias LinnaeusGreat Blue HeronO-X
Butorides virescens (Linnaeus)Green HeronO-X
Cathartidae(New World Vultures) 
Cathartes aura (Linnaeus)Turkey VultureO-X
Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus)OspreyO-M
Accipitridae(Hawks & Eagles) 
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus)Northern HarrierPO-H
Accipiter striatus VieillotSharp-shinned HawkCO-FS
Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte)Cooper’s HawkCO-FS
Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus)Northern GoshawkO-X
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus)Bald EagleO-M
Buteo lineatus (Gmelin)Red-shouldered HawkCO-NY
Buteo platypterus (Vieillot)Broad-winged HawkP-T
Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin)Red-tailed HawkP-A
Megascops asio (Linnaeus)Eastern Screech-OwlCO-FY
Bubo virginianus (Gmelin)Great Horned OwlP-T
Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus)Snowy OwlO-M
Strix varia BartonBarred OwlP-T
Strix nebulosa J.R. ForsterGreat Gray OwlO-M
Asio otus (Linnaeus)Long-eared OwlO-M
Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin)Northern Saw-whet OwlO-M
Megaceryle alcyon (Linnaeus)Belted KingfisherPO-H
Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus)Red-headed WoodpeckerO-M
Melanerpes carolinus (Linnaeus)Red-bellied WoodpeckerCO-FY
Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus)Yellow-bellied SapsuckerCO-FY
Dryobates pubescens (Linnaeus)Downy WoodpeckerCO-FY
Dryobates villosus (Linnaeus)Hairy WoodpeckerCO-NY
Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus)Northern FlickerCO-FY
Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus)Pileated WoodpeckerCO-NY
Falco sparverius LinnaeusAmerican KestrelCO-AE
Falco columbarius LinnaeusMerlinO-M
Falco peregrinus TunstallPeregrine FalconO-M
Tyrannidae(Tyrant Flycatchers) 
Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus)Great Crested FlycatcherCO-FY
Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus)Eastern KingbirdCO-AE
Contopus cooperi (Nuttall)Olive-sided FlycatcherO-M
Contopus virens (Linnaeus)Eastern Wood-PeweeCO-FY
Empidonax flaviventris (W.M. Baird & S.F. Baird)Yellow-bellied FlycatcherO-M
Empidonax alnorum BrewsterAlder FlycatcherCO-FY
Empidonax minimus (W.M. Baird & S.F. Baird)Least FlycatcherCO-FY
Sayornis phoebe (Latham)Eastern PhoebeCO-FY
Lanius borealis VieillotNorthern ShrikeO-M
Vireo flavifrons VieillotYellow-throated VireoO-M
Vireo solitarius (A. Wilson)Blue-headed VireoP-T
Vireo philadelphicus (Cassin)Philadelphia VireoO-M
Vireo gilvus (Vieillot)Warbling VireoCO-FY
Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus)Red-eyed VireoCO-FY
Corvidae(Crows & Jays) 
Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus)Blue JayP-P
Corvus brachyrhynchos C.L. BrehmAmerican CrowCO-FY
Corvus corax LinnaeusCommon RavenO-M
Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus)Horned LarkPO-M
Hirundinidae(Swallows & Martins) 
Riparia riparia (Linnaeus)Bank SwallowO-X
Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot)Tree SwallowCO-AE
Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Audubon)Northern Rough-winged SwallowO-X
Progne subis (Linnaeus)Purple MartinO-X
Hirundo rustica LinnaeusBarn SwallowCO-NY
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot)Cliff SwallowO-X
Paridae(Tits & Chickadees) 
Poecile atricapillus (Linnaeus)Black-capped ChickadeeCO-FY
Sitta canadensis LinnaeusRed-breasted NuthatchCO-FY
Sitta carolinensis LathamWhite-breasted NuthatchCO-FY
Certhia americana BonaparteBrown CreeperP-T
Troglodytes aedon VieillotHouse WrenCO-FY
Troglodytes hiemalis VieillotWinter WrenP-T
Cistothorus platensis (Latham)Sedge WrenO-M
Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus)Blue-grey GnatcatcherO-M
Regulus satrapa LichtensteinGolden-crowned KingletP-T
Regulus calendula (Linnaeus)Ruby-crowned KingletO-M
Sialia sialis (Linnaeus)Eastern BluebirdCO-AE
Catharus fuscescens (Stephens)VeeryP-T
Catharus minimusGrey-cheeked ThrushO-M
Catharus ustulatusSwainson’s ThrushO-M
Catharus guttatus (Pallas)Hermit ThrushCO-FY
Hylocichla mustelina (Gmelin)Wood ThrushCO-FY
Turdus migratorius LinnaeusAmerican RobinCO-NE
Mimidae(Mockingbirds & Thrashers) 
Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus)Gray CatbirdCO-FY
Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus)Brown ThrasherPO-M
Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus)Northern MockingbirdO-M
Sturnus vulgaris LinnaeusEuropean StarlingCO-NY
Bombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus)Bohemian WaxwingO-M
Bombycilla cedrorum VieillotCedar WaxwingCO-FY
Passeridae(Old World Sparrows) 
Passer domesticus (Linnaeus)House SparrowO-X
Motacillidae(Wagtails & Pipits) 
Anthus rubescens (Tunstall)American PipitO-M
Fringillidae(Old World Finches) 
Coccothraustes vespertinus (W. Cooper)Evening GrosbeakO-M
Pinicola enucleator (Linnaeus)Pine GrosbeakO-M
Haemorhous mexicanus (Statius Müller)House FinchPO-M
Haemorhous purpureus (Gmelin)Purple FinchP-P
Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus)Common RedpollO-M
Loxia curvirostra LinnaeusRed CrossbillO-M
Loxia leucoptera GmelinWhite-winged CrossbillO-X
Spinus pinus (A. Wilson)Pine SiskinO-M
Spinus tristis (Linnaeus)American GoldfinchCO-NE
Calcariidae(Longspurs & Snow Buntings) 
Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus)Snow BuntingO-M
Passerellidae(New World Sparrows) 
Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin)Grasshopper SparrowPO-M
Spizella passerina (Bechstein)Chipping SparrowCO-FY
Spizella pallida (Swainson)Clay-colored SparrowPO-H
Spizella pusilla (A. Wilson)Field SparrowCO-NE
Passerella iliaca (Merrem)Fox SparrowO-M
Spizelloides arborea (A. Wilson)American Tree SparrowO-M
Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus)Dark-eyed JuncoO-M
Zonotrichia leucophrys (J.R. Forster)White-crowned SparrowO-M
Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin)White-throated SparrowP-T
Pooecetes gramineus (Gmelin)Vesper SparrowPO-H
Passerculus sandwichensis (Gmelin)Savannah SparrowCO-FY
Melospiza melodia (A. Wilson)Song SparrowCO-FY
Melospiza lincolnii (Audubon)Lincoln’s SparrowO-M
Melospiza georgiana (Latham)Swamp SparrowCO-FY
Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus)Eastern TowheeCO-FY
Icteriidae(Yellow-breasted Chats) 
Icteria virens (Linnaeus)Yellow-breasted ChatO-M
Icteridae(New World Blackbirds) 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus)BobolinkCO-FS
Sturnella magna (Linnaeus)Eastern MeadowlarkCO-NE
Icterus spurius (Linnaeus)Orchard OriolePO-M
Icterus galbula (Linnaeus)Baltimore OrioleCO-FY
Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus)Red-winged BlackbirdCO-FY
Molothrus ater (Boddaert)Brown-headed CowbirdCO-FY
Euphagus carolinus (Müller)Rusty BlackbirdO-M
Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus)Common GrackleCO-FS
Parulidae(New World Warblers) 
Seiurus aurocapilla (Linnaeus)OvenbirdCO-FY
Parkesia noveboracensis (Gmelin)Northern WaterthrushPO-M
Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus)Golden-winged WarblerCO-FS
Vermivora cyanoptera (Olson & Reveal)Blue-winged WarblerCO-FS
Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus)  
Vermivora cyanoptera (Olson & Reveal)Brewster’s WarblerCO-FS
Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus)Black-and-white WarblerPO-M
Leiothlypis peregrina (A. Wilson)Tennessee WarblerO-M
Leiothlypis celata (Say)Orange-crowned WarblerO-M
Leiothlypis ruficapilla (A. Wilson)Nashville WarblerCO-FY
Oporornis agilis (A. Wilson)Connecticut WarblerO-M
Geothlypis philadelphia (A. Wilson)Mourning WarblerCO-FY
Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus)Common YellowthroatCO-FS
Setophaga citrina (Boddaert)Hooded WarblerPO-M
Setophaga ruticilla (Linnaeus)American RedstartO-M
Setophaga tigrina (Gmelin)Cape May WarblerO-M
Setophaga americana (Linnaeus)Northern ParulaO-M
Setophaga magnolia (A. Wilson)Magnolia WarblerP-T
Setophaga castanea (A. Wilson)Bay-breasted WarblerO-M
Setophaga fusca (Statius Müller)Blackburnian WarblerP-T
Setophaga petechia (Linnaeus)Yellow WarblerCO-FY
Setophaga pensylvanica (Linnaeus)Chestnut-sided WarblerPO-M
Setophaga striata (J.R. Forster)Blackpoll WarblerO-M
Setophaga caerulescens (Gmelin)Black-throated Blue WarblerO-M
Setophaga palmarum (Gmelin)Palm WarblerO-M
Setophaga pinus (Linnaeus)Pine WarblerP-T
Setophaga coronata (Linnaeus)Yellow-rumped WarblerP-T
Setophaga virens (Gmelin)Black-throated Green WarblerP-T
Cardellina canadensis (Linnaeus)Canada WarblerPO-M
Cardellina pusilla (A. Wilson)Wilson’s WarblerO-M
Cardinalidae(Cardinals & Allies) 
Piranga olivacea (Gmelin)Scarlet TanagerCO-FY
Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus)Northern CardinalCO-FY
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus)Rose-breasted GrosbeakCO-FY
Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus)Indigo BuntingCO-FY

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