Reciprocal Transplant Experiment This experiment is replicated in northern Virginia and in Timmins, ON, as well as KSR. Plots contain F2 hybrids of 1 northern x 1 southern population, as well as parental plants from 6 populations representing a latitudinal gradient. The purpose of this experiment is to directly test for local adaptation and measure selection on life history traits in three environments. This experiment began in May 2007. We are considering the possibility of turning this into a long-term experiment to measure life-time fitness. Field Phenology Experiment This is an ongoing experiment, which began in June 2005. It is intended to monitor growth and phenology of 13 populations over multiple growing seasons in a natural environment. This experiment has also allowed us to test for genotype-by-environment interactions with a previous glasshouse study. We plan to begin eliminating these plants at the end of the growing season, with the use of herbicide.